On Mon, May 06, 2002 at 02:34:49AM +0200, Daniel Phillips wrote:
> On Monday 06 May 2002 02:28, Andrea Arcangeli wrote:
> > On Mon, May 06, 2002 at 01:54:52AM +0200, Daniel Phillips wrote:
> > > On Friday 03 May 2002 07:15, Andrea Arcangeli wrote:
> > > > On Thu, May 02, 2002 at 09:08:18PM +0200, Daniel Phillips wrote:
> > > > > On Thursday 02 May 2002 20:57, Andrea Arcangeli wrote:
> > > > > >
> > > > > > correct. The direct mapping is nothing magic, it's like a big static
> > > > > > kmap area. Everybody is required to use
> > > > > > virt_to_page/page_address/pci_map_single/... to switch between virtual
> > > > > > address and mem_map anyways (thanks to the discontigous mem_map), so you
> > > > > > can use this property by making discontigous the virtual space as well,
> > > > > > not only the mem_map. discontigmem basically just allows that.
> > > > >
> > > > > And what if you don't have enough virtual space to fit all the memory you
> > > >
> > > > ZONE_NORMAL is by definition limited by the direct mapping size, so if
> > > > you don't have enough virtual space you cannot enlarge the zone_normal
> > > > anyways. If need more virtual space you can only do things like
> > > > CONFIG_2G.
> > >
> > > I must be guilty of not explaining clearly. Suppose you have the following
> > > physical memory map:
> > >
> > > 0: 128 MB
> > > 8000,0000: 128 MB
> > > 1,0000,0000: 128 MB
> > > 1,8000,0000: 128 MB
> > > 2,0000,0000: 128 MB
> > > 2,8000,0000: 128 MB
> > > 3,0000,0000: 128 MB
> > > 3,8000,0000: 128 MB
> > >
> > > The total is 1 GB of installed ram. Yet the kernel's 1G virtual space,
> > > can only handle 128 MB of it. The rest falls out of the addressable range and
> > > has to be handled as highmem, that is if you preserve the linear relationship
> > > between kernel virtual memory and physical memory, as config_discontigmem does.
> > > Even if you go to 2G of kernel memory (restricting user space to 2G of virtual)
> > > you can only handle 256 MB.
> > >
> > > By using config_nonlinear, the kernel can directly address all of that memory,
> > > giving you the full 800MB or so to work with (leaving out the kmap regions etc)
> > > as zone_normal.
> > If those different 128M chunks aren't in different numa nodes that's
> > broken hardware that can be workarounded just fine with discontigmem.
> It's real hardware - broken operating system. And no, it's not numa.
operative system can workaround such a weird mem layout just fine
with discontigmem, there is no problem making such hardware to work.
> Could you please explain how to work around it with discontigmem?
Are you serious? that's what ARM is doing for ages in 2.4, I think this
part was obvious under the whole previous discussions. just put each
discontigous chunk into a separated pgdat and it will work flawlessy
(also make sure to apply all pending vm/numa fixes in -aa first that are
needed for numa anyways). They will all be normal zones provided you
implement a static view of them in the kernel virtual address space, and
you also cover page_address/virt_to_page/pci_map* of course.
Yes, nonlinear would be just a bit faster than discontigmem in the above
scenario (it's non numa so you are not forced to describe the
discontigmem topology to common code and that would save some runtime
bit), but avoiding nonlinear also lefts the common code quite simpler
without adding further mm abstractions.
With hundred of pgdats the "discontigmem workaround" becomes prohibitive,
and so nonlinear become mandatory in a scenario like origin2k. But in
the above scenario, "nonlinear" would be just a minor optimizations that
also leads to additional common code complexity.
> > If
> > as expected they are (indeed similar to numa-q) placed on different numa
> > nodes, then they must go into pgdat regardless, so nonlinear or not
> > cannot make difference with numa. Either ways (both if it's broken
> > hardware workaroundable with discontigmem, or proper numa architecture)
> > there will be no problem at all in coalescing the blocks below 4G into
> > ZONE_NORMAL (and for the blocks above 4G nonlinaer can do nothing).
> Why can config_nonlinear do nothing with blocks above 4G physical?
Just to be sure it's clear, with "do nothing", I mean it cannot put them
into zone_normal anyways. Putting the whole thing into zone_normal was
your whole point of the previous email: "By using config_nonlinear, the
kernel can directly address all of that memory...giving you the full
800MB...as zone_normal". I think I just told you why, grep for vmalloc32
and see why it doesn't passes to GFP the __GFP_HIGHMEM flag.
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