[AUFS PATCH v2.6.26-rc2-mm1 02/39] aufs manual

From: hooanon05
Date: Tue May 20 2008 - 23:48:12 EST

From: Junjiro Okajima <hooanon05@xxxxxxxxxxx>

initial commit
aufs manual

Signed-off-by: Junjiro Okajima <hooanon05@xxxxxxxxxxx>
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+.ds AUFS_VERSION 20080521-mm
+.ds AUFS_XINO_FNAME .aufs.xino
+.ds AUFS_XINO_DEFPATH /tmp/.aufs.xino
+.ds AUFS_WH_PFX .wh.
+.ds AUFS_WKQ_NAME aufsd
+.ds AUFS_WH_DIROPQ .wh..wh..opq
+.ds AUFS_WH_BASENAME .wh.aufs
+.ds AUFS_WH_PLINKDIR .wh.plink
+.\".so aufs.tmac
+.de TQ
+.TP \$1
+.de Bu
+.IP \(bu 4
+.\" end of macro definitions
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.TH aufs 5 \*[AUFS_VERSION] Linux "Linux Aufs User\[aq]s Manual"
+aufs \- another unionfs. version \*[AUFS_VERSION]
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+Aufs is a stackable unification filesystem such as Unionfs, which unifies
+several directories and provides a merged single directory.
+In the early days, aufs was entirely re-designed and re-implemented
+Unionfs Version 1.x series. After
+many original ideas, approaches and improvements, it
+becomes totally different from Unionfs while keeping the basic features.
+See Unionfs Version 1.x series for the basic features.
+Recently, Unionfs Version 2.x series begin taking some of same
+approaches to aufs\[aq]s.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+At mount-time, the order of interpreting options is,
+simple flags, except xino/noxino, udba=inotify and dlgt
+At remount-time,
+the options are interpreted in the given order,
+e.g. left to right, except dlgt. The \[oq]dlgt\[cq] option is
+disabled in interpreting.
+create or remove
+whiteout-base(\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_BASENAME]) and
+whplink-dir(\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_PLINKDIR]) if necessary
+re-enable dlgt if necessary
+.B br:BRANCH[:BRANCH ...] (dirs=BRANCH[:BRANCH ...])
+Adds new branches.
+(cf. Branch Syntax).
+Aufs rejects the branch which is an ancestor or a descendant of anther
+branch. It is called overlapped. When the branch is loopback-mounted
+directory, aufs also checks the source fs-image file of loopback
+device. If the source file is a descendant of another branch, it will
+be rejected too.
+After mounting aufs or adding a branch, if you move a branch under
+another branch and make it descendant of anther branch, aufs will not
+work correctly.
+.B [ add | ins ]:index:BRANCH
+Adds a new branch.
+The index begins with 0.
+Aufs creates
+whiteout-base(\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_BASENAME]) and
+whplink-dir(\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_PLINKDIR]) if necessary.
+If there is the same named file on the lower branch (larger index),
+aufs will hide the lower file.
+You can only see the highest file.
+You will be confused if the added branch has whiteouts (including
+diropq), they may or may not hide the lower entries.
+.\" It is recommended to make sure that the added branch has no whiteout.
+If a process have once mapped a file by mmap(2) with MAP_SHARED
+and the same named file exists on the lower branch,
+the process still refers the file on the lower(hidden)
+branch after adding the branch.
+If you want to update the contents of a process address space after
+adding, you need to restart your process or open/mmap the file again.
+.\" Usually, such files are executables or shared libraries.
+(cf. Branch Syntax).
+.B del:dir
+Removes a branch.
+Aufs does not remove
+whiteout-base(\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_BASENAME]) and
+whplink-dir(\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_PLINKDIR]) automatically.
+For example, when you add a RO branch which was unified as RW, you
+will see whiteout-base or whplink-dir on the added RO branch.
+If a process is referencing the file/directory on the deleting branch
+(by open, mmap, current working directory, etc.), aufs will return an
+error EBUSY.
+.B mod:BRANCH
+Modifies the permission flags of the branch.
+Aufs creates or removes
+whiteout-base(\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_BASENAME]) and/or
+whplink-dir(\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_PLINKDIR]) if necessary.
+If the branch permission is been changing \[oq]rw\[cq] to \[oq]ro\[cq], and a process
+is mapping a file by mmap(2)
+.\" with MAP_SHARED
+on the branch, the process may or may not
+be able to modify its mapped memory region after modifying branch
+permission flags.
+(cf. Branch Syntax).
+.B append:BRANCH
+equivalent to \[oq]add:(last index + 1):BRANCH\[cq].
+(cf. Branch Syntax).
+.B prepend:BRANCH
+equivalent to \[oq]add:0:BRANCH.\[cq]
+(cf. Branch Syntax).
+.B xino=filename
+Use external inode number bitmap and translation table. It is set to
+<FirstWritableBranch>/\*[AUFS_XINO_FNAME] by default, or
+Comma character in filename is not allowed.
+The files are created per an aufs and per a branch filesystem, and
+unlinked. So you
+cannot find this file, but it exists and is read/written frequently by
+(cf. External Inode Number Bitmap and Translation Table).
+.B noxino
+Stop using external inode number bitmap and translation table.
+If you use this option,
+Some applications will not work correctly.
+.\" And pseudo link feature will not work after the inode cache is
+.\" shrunk.
+(cf. External Inode Number Bitmap and Translation Table).
+.B trunc_xib
+Truncate the external inode number bitmap file. The truncation is done
+automatically when you delete a branch unless you do not specify
+\[oq]notrunc_xib\[cq] option.
+(cf. External Inode Number Bitmap and Translation Table).
+.B notrunc_xib
+Stop truncating the external inode number bitmap file when you delete
+a branch.
+(cf. External Inode Number Bitmap and Translation Table).
+.B create_policy | create=CREATE_POLICY
+.B copyup_policy | copyup | cpup=COPYUP_POLICY
+Policies to select one among multiple writable branches. The default
+values are \[oq]create=tdp\[cq] and \[oq]cpup=tdp\[cq].
+link(2) and rename(2) systemcalls have an exception. In aufs, they
+try keeping their operations in the branch where the source exists.
+(cf. Policies to Select One among Multiple Writable Branches).
+.B verbose | v
+Print some information.
+Currently, it is only busy file (or inode) at deleting a branch.
+.B noverbose | quiet | q | silent
+Disable \[oq]verbose\[cq] option.
+This is default value.
+.B dirwh=N
+Watermark to remove a dir actually at rmdir(2) and rename(2).
+If the target dir which is being removed or renamed (destination dir)
+has a huge number of whiteouts, i.e. the dir is empty logically but
+physically, the cost to remove/rename the single
+dir may be very high.
+It is
+required to unlink all of whiteouts internally before issuing
+rmdir/rename to the branch.
+To reduce the cost of single systemcall,
+aufs renames the target dir to a whiteout-ed temporary name and
+invokes a pre-created
+kernel thread to remove whiteout-ed children and the target dir.
+The rmdir/rename systemcall returns just after kicking the thread.
+When the number of whiteout-ed children is less than the value of
+dirwh, aufs remove them in a single systemcall instead of passing
+another thread.
+This value is ignored when the branch is NFS.
+The default value is \*[AUFS_DIRWH_DEF].
+.B plink
+.B noplink
+Specifies to use \[oq]pseudo link\[cq] feature or not.
+The default is \[oq]plink\[cq] which means use this feature.
+(cf. Pseudo Link)
+.B clean_plink
+Removes all pseudo-links in memory.
+In order to make pseudo-link permanent, use
+\[oq]auplink\[cq] script just before one of these operations,
+unmounting aufs,
+using \[oq]ro\[cq] or \[oq]noplink\[cq] mount option,
+deleting a branch from aufs,
+adding a branch into aufs,
+or changing your writable branch as readonly.
+If you installed both of /sbin/mount.aufs and /sbin/umount.aufs, and your
+mount(8) and umount(8) support them, and /etc/default/auplink is configured,
+\[oq]auplink\[cq] script will be executed automatically and flush pseudo-links.
+(cf. Pseudo Link)
+.B udba=none | reval | inotify
+Specifies the level of UDBA (User\[aq]s Direct Branch Access) test.
+(cf. User\[aq]s Direct Branch Access and Inotify Limitation).
+.B diropq=whiteouted | w | always | a
+Specifies whether mkdir(2) and rename(2) dir case make the created directory
+\[oq]opaque\[cq] or not.
+In other words, to create \[oq]\*[AUFS_WH_DIROPQ]\[cq] under the created or renamed
+directory, or not to create.
+When you specify diropq=w or diropq=whiteouted, aufs will not create
+it if the
+directory was not whiteouted or opaqued. If the directory was whiteouted
+or opaqued, the created or renamed directory will be opaque.
+When you specify diropq=a or diropq==always, aufs will always create
+it regardless
+the directory was whiteouted/opaqued or not.
+The default value is diropq=w, it means not to create when it is unnecessary.
+If you define CONFIG_AUFS_COMPAT at aufs compiling time, the default will be
+You need to consider this option if you are planning to add a branch later
+since \[oq]diropq\[cq] affects the same named directory on the added branch.
+.B warn_perm
+.B nowarn_perm
+Adding a branch, aufs will issue a warning about uid/gid/permission of
+the adding branch directory,
+when they differ from the existing branch\[aq]s. This difference may or
+may not impose a security risk.
+If you are sure that there is no problem and want to stop the warning,
+use \[oq]nowarn_perm\[cq] option.
+The default is \[oq]warn_perm\[cq] (cf. DIAGNOSTICS).
+.B coo=none | leaf | all
+Specifies copyup-on-open level.
+When you open a file which is on readonly branch, aufs opens the file after
+copying-up it to the writable branch following this level.
+When the keyword \[oq]all\[cq] is specified, aufs copies-up the opening object even if
+it is a directory. In this case, simple \[oq]ls\[cq] or \[oq]find\[cq] cause the copyup and
+your writable branch will have a lot of empty directories.
+When the keyword \[oq]leaf\[cq] is specified, aufs copies-up the opening object except
+The keyword \[oq]none\[cq] disables copyup-on-open.
+The default is \[oq]coo=none\[cq].
+.B dlgt
+.B nodlgt
+If you do not want your application to access branches though aufs or
+to be traced strictly by task I/O accounting, you can
+use the kernel threads in aufs. If you enable CONFIG_AUFS_DLGT and
+specify \[oq]dlgt\[cq] mount option, then
+aufs delegates its internal
+access to the branches to the kernel threads.
+When you define CONFIG_SECURITY and use any type of Linux Security Module
+(LSM), for example SUSE AppArmor, you may meet some errors or
+warnings from your security module. Because aufs access its branches
+internally, your security module may detect, report, or prohibit it.
+The behaviour is highly depending upon your security module and its
+In this case, you can use \[oq]dlgt\[cq] mount option, too.
+Your LSM will see the
+aufs kernel threads access to the branch, instead of your
+The delegation may have a negative impact to the performance since it
+task-switch (scheduling) and waits for the thread to complete the
+delegated access. You should consider increasing the number of the
+kernel thread specifying the aufs module parameter \[oq]nwkq.\[cq]
+Currently, aufs does NOT delegate it at mount and remount time.
+The default is nodlgt which means aufs does not delegate the internal
+.\" .
+.\" .TP
+.\" .B dirperm1
+.\" .TQ
+.\" .B nodirperm1
+.\" By default (nodirperm1), aufs checks the permission bits of target
+.\" directory on all branches. If any of them refused the requested
+.\" access, then aufs returns negative even if the topmost permission bits
+.\" of the directory allowed the access.
+.\" If you enable CONFIG_AUFS_DLGT and specify \[oq]dirperm1\[cq] option, aufs
+.\" doesn\[aq]t check the directories on all lower branches but the topmost
+.\" one.
+.B shwh
+.B noshwh
+By default (noshwh), aufs doesn\[aq]t show the whiteouts and
+they just hide the same named entries in the lower branches. The
+whiteout itself also never be appeared.
+If you enable CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH and specify \[oq]shwh\[cq] option, aufs
+will show you the name of whiteouts
+with keeping its feature to hide the lowers.
+Honestly speaking, I am rather confused with this \[oq]visible whiteouts.\[cq]
+But a user who originally requested this feature wrote a nice how-to
+document about this feature. See Tips file in the aufs CVS tree.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Module Parameters
+.B nwkq=N
+The number of kernel thread named \*[AUFS_WKQ_NAME].
+Those threads stay in the system while the aufs module is loaded,
+and handle the special I/O requests from aufs.
+The default value is \*[AUFS_NWKQ_DEF].
+The special I/O requests from aufs include a part of copy-up, lookup,
+directory handling, pseudo-link, xino file operations and the
+delegated access to branches.
+For example, Unix filesystems allow you to rmdir(2) which has no write
+permission bit, if its parent directory has write permission bit. In aufs, the
+removing directory may or may not have whiteout or \[oq]dir opaque\[cq] mark as its
+child. And aufs needs to unlink(2) them before rmdir(2).
+Therefore aufs delegates the actual unlink(2) and rmdir(2) to another kernel
+thread which has been created already and has a superuser privilege.
+If you enable CONFIG_SYSFS, you can check this value through
+So how many threads is enough? You can check it by
+<sysfs>/fs/aufs/stat, if you enable CONFIG_AUFS_SYSAUFS (for
+linux\-2.6.24 and earlier) or CONFIG_AUFS_STAT (for linux\-2.6.25 and
+later) too.
+It shows the maximum number of the enqueued work
+at a time per a thread. Usually they are all small numbers or
+0. If your workload is heavy
+and you feel the response is low, then check these values. If there
+are no zero and any of them is larger than 2 or 3, you should set \[oq]nwkq\[cq]
+module parameter greater then the default value.
+But the reason of the bad response is in your branch filesystem, to
+increase the number of aufs thread will not help you.
+The last number in <sysfs>/fs/aufs/stat after comma is the maximum
+number of the \[oq]no-wait\[cq] enqueued work at a time. Aufs enqueues such
+work to the system global workqueue called \[oq]events\[cq], but does not wait
+for its completion. Usually they does no harm the time-performance of
+.B brs=1 | 0
+Specifies to use the branch path data file under sysfs or not.
+If the number of your branches is large or their path is long
+and you meet the limitation of mount(8) ro /etc/mtab, you need to
+enable CONFIG_SYSFS and set aufs module parameter brs=1.
+If your linux version is linux\-2.6.24 and earlier, you need to enable
+When this parameter is set as 1, aufs does not show \[oq]br:\[cq] (or dirs=)
+mount option through /proc/mounts, and /sbin/mount.aufs does not put it
+to /etc/mtab. So you can keep yourself from the page limitation of
+mount(8) or /etc/mtab.
+Aufs shows branch paths through <sysfs>/fs/aufs/si_XXX/brNNN.
+Actually the file under sysfs has also a size limitation, but I don\[aq]t
+think it is harmful.
+The default is brs=0, which means <sysfs>/fs/aufs/si_XXX/brNNN does not exist
+and \[oq]br:\[cq] option will appear in /proc/mounts, and /etc/mtab if you
+install /sbin/mount.aufs.
+If you did not enable CONFIG_AUFS_SYSAUFS (for
+linux\-2.6.24 and earlier), this parameter will be
+There is one more side effect in setting 1 to this parameter.
+If you rename your branch, the branch path written in /etc/mtab will be
+obsoleted and the future remount will meet some error due to the
+unmatched parameters (Remember that mount(8) may take the options from
+/etc/mtab and pass them to the systemcall).
+If you set 1, /etc/mtab will not hold the branch path and you will not
+meet such trouble. On the other hand, /proc/mounts which holds the
+branch path is updated dynamically. So it must not be obsoleted.
+.B sysrq=key
+Specifies MagicSysRq key for debugging aufs.
+You need to enable both of CONFIG_MAGIC_SYSRQ and CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG.
+If your linux version is linux\-2.6.24 and earlier, you need to enable
+Currently this is for developers only.
+The default is \[oq]a\[cq].
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Branch Syntax
+.B dir_path[ =permission [ + attribute ] ]
+.B permission := rw | ro | rr
+.B attribute := wh | nolwh
+dir_path is a directory path.
+The keyword after \[oq]dir_path=\[cq] is a
+permission flags for that branch.
+Comma, colon and the permission flags string (including \[oq]=\[cq])in the path
+are not allowed.
+Any filesystem can be a branch, but aufs and unionfs.
+If you specify aufs or unionfs as a branch, aufs will return an error
+saying it is overlapped or nested.
+If you enable CONFIG_AUFS_ROBR, you can use aufs as a non-writable
+branch of another aufs.
+Cramfs in linux stable release has strange inodes and it makes aufs
+confused. For example,
+$ mkdir -p w/d1 w/d2
+$ > w/z1
+$ > w/z2
+$ mkcramfs w cramfs
+$ sudo mount -t cramfs -o ro,loop cramfs /mnt
+$ find /mnt -ls
+ 76 1 drwxr-xr-x 1 jro 232 64 Jan 1 1970 /mnt
+ 1 1 drwxr-xr-x 1 jro 232 0 Jan 1 1970 /mnt/d1
+ 1 1 drwxr-xr-x 1 jro 232 0 Jan 1 1970 /mnt/d2
+ 1 1 -rw-r--r-- 1 jro 232 0 Jan 1 1970 /mnt/z1
+ 1 1 -rw-r--r-- 1 jro 232 0 Jan 1 1970 /mnt/z2
+All these two directories and two files have the same inode with one
+as their link count. Aufs cannot handle such inode correctly.
+Currently, aufs involves a tiny workaround for such inodes. But some
+applications may not work correctly since aufs inode number for such
+inode will change silently.
+If you do not have any empty files, empty directories or special files,
+inodes on cramfs will be all fine.
+A branch should not be shared as the writable branch between multiple
+aufs. A readonly branch can be shared.
+The maximum number of branches is configurable at compile time.
+The current value is \*[AUFS_BRANCH_MAX] which depends upon
+When an unknown permission or attribute is given, aufs sets ro to that
+branch silently.
+.SS Permission
+.B rw
+Readable and writable branch. Set as default for the first branch.
+If the branch filesystem is mounted as readonly, you cannot set it \[oq]rw.\[cq]
+.\" A filesystem which does not support link(2) and i_op\->setattr(), for
+.\" example FAT, will not be used as the writable branch.
+.B ro
+Readonly branch and it has no whiteouts on it.
+Set as default for all branches except the first one. Aufs never issue
+both of write operation and lookup operation for whiteout to this branch.
+.B rr
+Real readonly branch, special case of \[oq]ro\[cq], for natively readonly
+branch. Assuming the branch is natively readonly, aufs can optimize
+some internal operation. For example, if you specify \[oq]udba=inotify\[cq]
+option, aufs does not set inotify for the things on rr branch.
+Set by default for a branch whose fs-type is either \[oq]iso9660\[cq],
+\[oq]cramfs\[cq], \[oq]romfs\[cq] or \[oq]squashfs.\[cq]
+.SS Attribute
+.B wh
+Readonly branch and it has/might have whiteouts on it.
+Aufs never issue write operation to this branch, but lookup for whiteout.
+Use this as \[oq]<branch_dir>=ro+wh\[cq].
+.B nolwh
+Usually, aufs creates a whiteout as a hardlink on a writable
+branch. This attributes prohibits aufs to create the hardlinked
+whiteout, including the source file of all hardlinked whiteout
+If you do not like a hardlink, or your writable branch does not support
+link(2), then use this attribute.
+But I am afraid a filesystem which does not support link(2) natively
+will fail in other place such as copy-up.
+Use this as \[oq]<branch_dir>=rw+nolwh\[cq].
+Also you may want to try \[oq]noplink\[cq] mount option, while it is not recommended.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH External Inode Number Bitmap and Translation Table (xino)
+Aufs uses one external bitmap file and one external inode number
+translation table files per an aufs and per a branch
+filesystem by
+default. The bitmap is for recycling aufs inode number and the others
+are a table for converting an inode number on a branch to
+an aufs inode number. The default path
+is \[oq]first writable branch\[cq]/\*[AUFS_XINO_FNAME].
+If there is no writable branch, the
+default path
+will be \*[AUFS_XINO_DEFPATH].
+.\" A user who executes mount(8) needs the privilege to create xino
+.\" file.
+Those files are always opened and read/write by aufs frequently.
+If your writable branch is on flash memory device, it is recommended
+to put xino files on other than flash memory by specifying \[oq]xino=\[cq]
+mount option.
+maximum file size of the bitmap is, basically, the amount of the
+number of all the files on all branches divided by 8 (the number of
+bits in a byte).
+For example, on a 4KB page size system, if you have 32,768 (or
+2,599,968) files in aufs world,
+then the maximum file size of the bitmap is 4KB (or 320KB).
+maximum file size of the table will
+be \[oq]max inode number on the branch x size of an inode number\[cq].
+For example in 32bit environment,
+$ df -i /branch_fs
+/dev/hda14 2599968 203127 2396841 8% /branch_fs
+and /branch_fs is an branch of the aufs. When the inode number is
+assigned contiguously (without \[oq]hole\[cq]), the maximum xino file size for
+/branch_fs will be 2,599,968 x 4 bytes = about 10 MB. But it might not be
+allocated all of disk blocks.
+When the inode number is assigned discontinuously, the maximum size of
+xino file will be the largest inode number on a branch x 4 bytes.
+Additionally, the file size is limited to LLONG_MAX or the s_maxbytes
+in filesystem\[aq]s superblock (s_maxbytes may be smaller than
+LLONG_MAX). So the
+support-able largest inode number on a branch is less than
+2305843009213693950 (LLONG_MAX/4\-1).
+This is the current limitation of aufs.
+On 64bit environment, this limitation becomes more strict and the
+supported largest inode number is less than LLONG_MAX/8\-1.
+The xino files are always hidden, i.e. removed. So you cannot
+do \[oq]ls \-l xino_file\[cq].
+If you enable CONFIG_SYSFS, you can check these information through
+<sysfs>/fs/aufs/<si_id>/xino (for linux\-2.6.24 and earlier, you
+need to enable CONFIG_AUFS_SYSAUFS too).
+The first line in <sysfs>/fs/aufs/<si_id>/xino shows the information
+of the bitmap file, in the format of,
+<blocks>x<block size> <file size>
+Note that a filesystem usually has a
+feature called pre-allocation, which means a number of
+blocks are allocated automatically, and then deallocated
+silently when the filesystem thinks they are unnecessary.
+You do not have to be surprised the sudden changes of the number of
+blocks, when your filesystem which xino files are placed supports the
+pre-allocation feature.
+The rests are hidden xino file information in the format of,
+<branch index>: <file count>, <blocks>x<block size> <file size>
+If the file count is larger than 1, it means some of your branches are
+on the same filesystem and the xino file is shared by them.
+Note that the file size may not be equal to the actual consuming blocks
+since xino file is a sparse file, i.e. a hole in a file which does not
+consume any disk blocks.
+Once you unmount aufs, the xino files for that aufs are totally gone.
+It means that the inode number is not permanent.
+The xino files should be created on the filesystem except NFS.
+If your first writable branch is NFS, you will need to specify xino
+file path other than NFS.
+Also if you are going to remove the branch where xino files exist or
+change the branch permission to readonly, you need to use xino option
+before del/mod the branch.
+The bitmap file can be truncated.
+For example, if you delete a branch which has huge number of files,
+many inode numbers will be recycled and the bitmap will be truncated
+to smaller size. Aufs does this automatically when a branch is
+You can truncate it anytime you like if you specify \[oq]trunc_xib\[cq] mount
+option. But when the accessed inode number was not deleted, nothing
+will be truncated.
+If you do not want to truncate it (it may be slow) when you delete a
+branch, specify \[oq]notrunc_xib\[cq] after \[oq]del\[cq] mount option.
+If you do not want to use xino, use noxino mount option. Use this
+option with care, since the inode number may be changed silently and
+unexpectedly anytime.
+For example,
+rmdir failure, recursive chmod/chown/etc to a large and deep directory
+or anything else.
+And some applications will not work correctly.
+.\" When the inode number has been changed, your system
+.\" can be crazy.
+If you want to change the xino default path, use xino mount option.
+After you add branches, the persistence of inode number may not be
+At remount time, cached but unused inodes are discarded.
+And the newly appeared inode may have different inode number at the
+next access time. The inodes in use have the persistent inode number.
+When aufs assigned an inode number to a file, and if you create the
+same named file on the upper branch directly, then the next time you
+access the file, aufs may assign another inode number to the file even
+if you use xino option.
+Some applications may treat the file whose inode number has been
+changed as totally different file.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Pseudo Link (hardlink over branches)
+Aufs supports \[oq]pseudo link\[cq] which is a logical hard-link over
+branches (cf. ln(1) and link(2)).
+In other words, a copied-up file by link(2) and a copied-up file which was
+hard-linked on a readonly branch filesystem.
+When you have files named fileA and fileB which are
+hardlinked on a readonly branch, if you write something into fileA,
+aufs copies-up fileA to a writable branch, and write(2) the originally
+requested thing to the copied-up fileA. On the writable branch,
+fileA is not hardlinked.
+But aufs remembers it was hardlinked, and handles fileB as if it existed
+on the writable branch, by referencing fileA\[aq]s inode on the writable
+branch as fileB\[aq]s inode.
+Once you unmount aufs, the plink info for that aufs kept in memory are totally
+It means that the pseudo-link is not permanent.
+If you want to make plink permanent, try \[oq]auplink\[cq] script just before
+one of these operations,
+unmounting your aufs,
+using \[oq]ro\[cq] or \[oq]noplink\[cq] mount option,
+deleting a branch from aufs,
+adding a branch into aufs,
+or changing your writable branch to readonly.
+This script will reproduces all real hardlinks on a writable branch by linking
+them, and removes pseudo-link info in memory and temporary link on the
+writable branch.
+Since this script access your branches directly, you cannot hide them by
+\[oq]mount \-\-bind /tmp /branch\[cq] or something.
+If you are willing to rebuild your aufs with the same branches later, you
+should use auplink script before you umount your aufs.
+If you installed both of /sbin/mount.aufs and /sbin/umount.aufs, and your
+mount(8) and umount(8) support them, and /etc/default/auplink is configured,
+\[oq]auplink\[cq] script will be executed automatically and flush pseudo-links.
+The /etc/default/auplink is a simple shell script which does nothing but defines
+$FLUSH. If your aufs mount point is set in $FLUSH, \[oq]auplink\[cq] flushes
+the pseudo-links on that mount point.
+If $FLUSH is set to \[oq]ALL\[cq], \[oq]auplink\[cq] will be executed for every aufs.
+The \[oq]auplink\[cq] script uses \[oq]aulchown\[cq] binary, you need to install it too.
+The \[oq]auplink\[cq] script executes \[oq]find\[cq] and \[oq]mount \-o remount\[cq], they may take a
+long time and impact the later system performance.
+If you did not install /sbin/mount.aufs, /sbin/umount.aufs or /sbin/auplink,
+but you want to flush pseudo-links, then you need to execute \[oq]auplink\[cq] manually.
+If you installed and configured them, but do not want to execute \[oq]auplink\[cq] at
+umount time, then use \[oq]\-i\[cq] option for umount(8).
+# auplink /your/aufs/root flush
+# umount /your/aufs/root
+# auplink /your/aufs/root flush
+# mount -o remount,mod:/your/writable/branch=ro /your/aufs/root
+# auplink /your/aufs/root flush
+# mount -o remount,noplink /your/aufs/root
+# auplink /your/aufs/root flush
+# mount -o remount,del:/your/aufs/branch /your/aufs/root
+# auplink /your/aufs/root flush
+# mount -o remount,append:/your/aufs/branch /your/aufs/root
+The plinks are kept both in memory and on disk. When they consumes too much
+resources on your system, you can use the \[oq]auplink\[cq] script at anytime and
+throw away the unnecessary pseudo-links in safe.
+Additionally, the \[oq]auplink\[cq] script is very useful for some security reasons.
+For example, when you have a directory whose permission flags
+are 0700, and a file who is 0644 under the 0700 directory. Usually,
+all files under the 0700 directory are private and no one else can see
+the file. But when the directory is 0711 and someone else knows the 0644
+filename, he can read the file.
+Basically, aufs pseudo-link feature creates a temporary link under the
+directory whose owner is root and the permission flags are 0700.
+But when the writable branch is NFS, aufs sets 0711 to the directory.
+When the 0644 file is pseudo-linked, the temporary link, of course the
+contents of the file is totally equivalent, will be created under the
+0711 directory. The filename will be generated by its inode number.
+While it is hard to know the generated filename, someone else may try peeping
+the temporary pseudo-linked file by his software tool which may try the name
+from one to MAX_INT or something.
+In this case, the 0644 file will be read unexpectedly.
+I am afraid that leaving the temporary pseudo-links can be a security hole.
+It makes sense to execute \[oq]auplink /your/aufs/root flush\[cq]
+periodically, when your writable branch is NFS.
+When your writable branch is not NFS, or all users are careful enough to set 0600
+to their private files, you do not have to worry about this issue.
+If you do not want this feature, use \[oq]noplink\[cq] mount option and you do
+not need
+to install \[oq]auplink\[cq] script and \[oq]aulchown\[cq] binary.
+.SS The behaviours of plink and noplink
+This sample shows that the \[oq]f_src_linked2\[cq] with \[oq]noplink\[cq] option cannot follow
+the link.
+none on /dev/shm/u type aufs (rw,xino=/dev/shm/rw/.aufs.xino,br:/dev/shm/rw=rw:/dev/shm/ro=ro)
+$ ls -li ../r?/f_src_linked* ./f_src_linked* ./copied
+ls: ./copied: No such file or directory
+15 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ../ro/f_src_linked
+15 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ../ro/f_src_linked2
+22 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ./f_src_linked
+22 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ./f_src_linked2
+$ echo abc >> f_src_linked
+$ cp f_src_linked copied
+$ ls -li ../r?/f_src_linked* ./f_src_linked* ./copied
+15 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ../ro/f_src_linked
+15 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ../ro/f_src_linked2
+36 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 6 Dec 22 11:03 ../rw/f_src_linked
+53 -rw-r--r-- 1 jro jro 6 Dec 22 11:03 ./copied
+22 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 6 Dec 22 11:03 ./f_src_linked
+22 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 6 Dec 22 11:03 ./f_src_linked2
+$ cmp copied f_src_linked2
+none on /dev/shm/u type aufs (rw,xino=/dev/shm/rw/.aufs.xino,noplink,br:/dev/shm/rw=rw:/dev/shm/ro=ro)
+$ ls -li ../r?/f_src_linked* ./f_src_linked* ./copied
+ls: ./copied: No such file or directory
+17 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ../ro/f_src_linked
+17 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ../ro/f_src_linked2
+23 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ./f_src_linked
+23 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ./f_src_linked2
+$ echo abc >> f_src_linked
+$ cp f_src_linked copied
+$ ls -li ../r?/f_src_linked* ./f_src_linked* ./copied
+17 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ../ro/f_src_linked
+17 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 2 Dec 22 11:03 ../ro/f_src_linked2
+36 -rw-r--r-- 1 jro jro 6 Dec 22 11:03 ../rw/f_src_linked
+53 -rw-r--r-- 1 jro jro 6 Dec 22 11:03 ./copied
+23 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 6 Dec 22 11:03 ./f_src_linked
+23 -rw-r--r-- 2 jro jro 6 Dec 22 11:03 ./f_src_linked2
+$ cmp copied f_src_linked2
+cmp: EOF on f_src_linked2
+.\" If you add/del a branch, or link/unlink the pseudo-linked
+.\" file on a branch
+.\" directly, aufs cannot keep the correct link count, but the status of
+.\" \[oq]pseudo-linked.\[cq]
+.\" Those files may or may not keep the file data after you unlink the
+.\" file on the branch directly, especially the case of your branch is
+.\" NFS.
+If you add a branch which has fileA or fileB, aufs does not follow the
+pseudo link. The file on the added branch has no relation to the same
+named file(s) on the lower branch(es).
+If you use noxino mount option, pseudo link will not work after the
+kernel shrinks the inode cache.
+This feature will not work for squashfs before version 3.2 since its
+inode is tricky.
+When the inode is hardlinked, squashfs inodes has the same inode
+number and correct link count, but the inode memory object is
+different. Squashfs inodes (before v3.2) are generated for each, even
+they are hardlinked.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH User\[aq]s Direct Branch Access (UDBA)
+UDBA means a modification to a branch filesystem manually or directly,
+e.g. bypassing aufs.
+While aufs is designed and implemented to be safe after UDBA,
+it can make yourself and your aufs confused. And some information like
+aufs inode will be incorrect.
+For example, if you rename a file on a branch directly, the file on
+aufs may
+or may not be accessible through both of old and new name.
+Because aufs caches various information about the files on
+branches. And the cache still remains after UDBA.
+Aufs has a mount option named \[oq]udba\[cq] which specifies the test level at
+access time whether UDBA was happened or not.
+.B udba=none
+Aufs trusts the dentry and the inode cache on the system, and never
+test about UDBA. With this option, aufs runs fastest, but it may show
+you incorrect data.
+Additionally, if you often modify a branch
+directly, aufs will not be able to trace the changes of inodes on the
+branch. It can be a cause of wrong behaviour, deadlock or anything else.
+It is recommended to use this option only when you are sure that
+nobody access a file on a branch.
+It might be difficult for you to achieve real \[oq]no UDBA\[cq] world when you
+cannot stop your users doing \[oq]find / \-ls\[cq] or something.
+If you really want to forbid all of your users to UDBA, here is a trick
+for it.
+With this trick, users cannot see the
+branches directly and aufs runs with no problem, except \[oq]auplink\[cq] script.
+But if you are not familiar with aufs, this trick may make
+yourself confused.
+# d=/tmp/.aufs.hide
+# mkdir $d
+# for i in $branches_you_want_to_hide
+> do
+> mount -n --bind $d $i
+> done
+When you unmount the aufs, delete/modify the branch by remount, or you
+want to show the hidden branches again, unmount the bound
+# umount -n $branches_you_want_to_unbound
+If you use FUSE filesystem as an aufs branch which supports hardlink,
+you should not set this option, since FUSE makes inode objects for
+each hardlinks (at least in linux\-2.6.23). When your FUSE filesystem
+maintains them at link/unlinking, it is equivalent
+to \[oq]direct branch access\[cq] for aufs.
+.B udba=reval
+Aufs tests only the existence of the file which existed. If
+the existed file was removed on the branch directly, aufs
+discard the cache about the file and
+re-lookup it. So the data will be updated.
+This test is at minimum level to keep the performance and ensure the
+existence of a file.
+This is default and aufs runs still fast.
+This rule leads to some unexpected situation, but I hope it is
+harmless. Those are totally depends upon cache. Here are just a few
+If the file is cached as negative or
+not-existed, aufs does not test it. And the file is still handled as
+negative after a user created the file on a branch directly. If the
+file is not cached, aufs will lookup normally and find the file.
+When the file is cached as positive or existed, and a user created the
+same named file directly on the upper branch. Aufs detects the cached
+inode of the file is still existing and will show you the old (cached)
+file which is on the lower branch.
+When the file is cached as positive or existed, and a user renamed the
+file by rename(2) directly. Aufs detects the inode of the file is
+still existing. You may or may not see both of the old and new files.
+Todo: If aufs also tests the name, we can detect this case.
+If your outer modification (UDBA) is rare and you can ignore the
+temporary and minor differences between virtual aufs world and real
+branch filesystem, then try this mount option.
+.\" And when you modify a branch directly, set udba=inotify temporary
+.\" before the modification and set udba=reval again after that.
+.B udba=inotify
+Aufs sets \[oq]inotify\[cq] to all the accessed directories on its branches
+and receives the event about the dir and its children. It consumes
+resources, cpu and memory. And I am afraid that the performance will be
+hurt, but it is most strict test level.
+There are some limitations of linux inotify, see also Inotify
+So it is recommended to leave udba default option usually, and set it
+to inotify by remount when you need it.
+When a user accesses the file which was notified UDBA before, the cached data
+about the file will be discarded and aufs re-lookup it. So the data will
+be updated.
+When an error condition occurs between UDBA and aufs operation, aufs
+will return an error, including EIO.
+To use this option, you need linux\-2.6.18 and later, and need to
+To rename/rmdir a directory on a branch directory may reveal the same named
+directory on the lower branch. Aufs tries re-lookuping the renamed
+directory and the revealed directory and assigning different inode
+number to them. But the inode number including their children can be a
+problem. The inode numbers will be changed silently, and
+aufs may produce a warning. If you rename a directory repeatedly and
+reveal/hide the lower directory, then aufs may confuse their inode
+numbers too. It depends upon the system cache.
+When you make a directory in aufs and mount other filesystem on it,
+the directory in aufs cannot be removed expectedly because it is a
+mount point. But the same named directory on the writable branch can
+be removed, if someone wants. It is just an empty directory, instead
+of a mount point.
+Aufs cannot stop such direct rmdir, but produces a warning about it.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Linux Inotify Limitation
+Unfortunately, current inotify (linux\-2.6.18) has some limitations,
+and aufs must derive it. I am going to address some harmful cases.
+.SS IN_ATTRIB, updating atime
+When a file/dir on a branch is accessed directly, the inode atime (access
+time, cf. stat(2)) may or may not be updated. In some cases, inotify
+does not fire this event. So the aufs inode atime may remain old.
+.SS IN_ATTRIB, updating nlink
+When the link count of a file on a branch is incremented by link(2)
+inotify fires IN_CREATE to the parent
+directory, but IN_ATTRIB to the file. So the aufs inode nlink may
+remain old.
+.SS IN_DELETE, removing file on NFS
+When a file on a NFS branch is deleted directly, inotify may or may
+not fire
+IN_DELETE event. It depends upon the status of dentry
+In this case, the file on aufs seems still exists. Aufs and any user can see
+the file.
+.SS IN_IGNORED, deleted rename target
+When a file/dir on a branch is unlinked by rename(2) directly, inotify
+fires IN_IGNORED which means the inode is deleted. Actually, in some
+cases, the inode survives. For example, the rename target is linked or
+opened. In this case, inotify watch set by aufs is removed by VFS and
+And aufs cannot receive the events anymore. So aufs may show you
+incorrect data about the file/dir.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Policies to Select One among Multiple Writable Branches
+Aufs has some policies to select one among multiple writable branches
+when you are going to write/modify something. There are two kinds of
+policies, one is for newly create something and the other is for
+internal copy-up.
+You can select them by specifying mount option \[oq]create=CREATE_POLICY\[cq]
+or \[oq]cpup=COPYUP_POLICY.\[cq]
+These policies have no meaning when you have only one writable
+branch. If there is some meaning, it must hurt the performance.
+.SS Exceptions for Policies
+In every cases below, even if the policy says that the branch where a
+new file should be created is /rw2, the file will be created on /rw1.
+If there is a readonly branch with \[oq]wh\[cq] attribute above the
+policy-selected branch and the parent dir is marked as opaque,
+or the target (creating) file is whiteouted on the ro+wh branch, then
+the policy will be ignored and the target file will be created on the
+nearest upper writable branch than the ro+wh branch.
+/aufs = /rw1 + /ro+wh/diropq + /rw2
+/aufs = /rw1 + /ro+wh/wh.tgt + /rw2
+If there is a writable branch above the policy-selected branch and the
+parent dir is marked as opaque or the target file is whiteouted on the
+branch, then the policy will be ignored and the target file will be
+created on the highest one among the upper writable branches who has
+diropq or whiteout. In case of whiteout, aufs removes it as usual.
+/aufs = /rw1/diropq + /rw2
+/aufs = /rw1/wh.tgt + /rw2
+link(2) and rename(2) systemcalls are exceptions in every policy.
+They try selecting the branch where the source exists as possible since
+copyup a large file will take long time. If it can\[aq]t be, ie. the
+branch where the source exists is readonly, then they will follow the
+copyup policy.
+There is an exception for rename(2) when the target exists.
+If the rename target exists, aufs compares the index of the branches
+where the source and the target are existing and selects the higher
+one. If the selected branch is readonly, then aufs follows the copyup
+.SS Policies for Creating
+.B create=tdp | top\-down\-parent
+Selects the highest writable branch where the parent dir exists. If
+the parent dir does not exist on a writable branch, then the internal
+copyup will happen. The policy for this copyup is always \[oq]bottom-up.\[cq]
+This is the default policy.
+.B create=rr | round\-robin
+Selects a writable branch in round robin. When you have two writable
+branches and creates 10 new files, 5 files will be created for each
+mkdir(2) systemcall is an exception. When you create 10 new directories,
+all are created on the same branch.
+.B create=mfs[:second] | most\-free\-space[:second]
+Selects a writable branch which has most free space. In order to keep
+the performance, you can specify the duration (\[oq]second\[cq]) which makes
+aufs hold the index of last selected writable branch until the
+specified seconds expires. The first time you create something in aufs
+after the specified seconds expired, aufs checks the amount of free
+space of all writable branches by internal statfs call
+and the held branch index will be updated.
+The default value is \*[AUFS_MFS_SECOND_DEF] seconds.
+In this mode, a FUSE branch needs special attention.
+The struct fuse_operations has a statfs operation. It is OK, but the
+parameter is struct statvfs* instead of struct statfs*. So almost
+all user\-space implementaion will call statvfs(3)/fstatvfs(3) instead of
+In glibc, [f]statvfs(3) issues [f]statfs(2), open(2)/read(2) for
+and stat(2) for the mountpoint. With this situation, a FUSE branch will
+cause a deadlock in creating something in aufs. Here is a sample
+.\" .RS
+.\" .IN -10
+create a file just under the aufs root dir.
+aufs will aquire a write-lock for the parent directory.
+aufs may call statfs internally for each writable branches to decide the
+branch which has most free space.
+FUSE in kernel\-space converts and redirects the statfs request to the
+the user-space statfs handler will call [f]statvfs(3).
+the [f]statvfs(3) in glibc will access /proc/mounts and issue
+stat(2) for the mountpoint. But those require a read-lock for the aufs
+root directory.
+Then a deadlock occurs.
+.\" .RE 1
+.\" .IN
+In order to avoid this deadlock, I would suggest not to call
+[f]statvfs(3). Here is a sample code to do this.
+struct statvfs stvfs;
+ [f]statvfs(..., &stvfs)
+statfs_handler(const char *path, struct statvfs *arg)
+ struct statfs stfs;
+ [f]statfs(..., &stfs);
+ memcpy(arg, &stvfs, sizeof(stvfs));
+ arg->f_bfree = stfs.f_bfree;
+ arg->f_bavail = stfs.f_bavail;
+ arg->f_ffree = stfs.f_ffree;
+ arg->f_favail = /* any value */;
+.B create=mfsrr:low[:second]
+Selects a writable branch in most-free-space mode first, and then
+round-robin mode. If the selected branch has less free space than the
+specified value \[oq]low\[cq] in bytes, then aufs re-tries in round-robin mode.
+Try an arithmetic expansion of shell which is defined by POSIX.
+For example, $((10 * 1024 * 1024)) for 10M.
+You can also specify the duration (\[oq]second\[cq]) which is equivalent to
+the \[oq]mfs\[cq] mode.
+.B create=pmfs[:second]
+Selects a writable branch where the parent dir exists, such as tdp
+mode. When the parent dir exists on multiple writable branches, aufs
+selects the one which has most free space, such as mfs mode.
+.SS Policies for Copy-Up
+.B cpup=tdp | top\-down\-parent
+Equivalent to the same named policy for create.
+This is the default policy.
+.B cpup=bup | bottom\-up\-parent
+Selects the writable branch where the parent dir exists and the branch
+is nearest upper one from the copyup-source.
+.B cpup=bu | bottom\-up
+Selects the nearest upper writable branch from the copyup-source,
+regardless the existence of the parent dir.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Exporting Aufs via NFS
+Aufs is supporting NFS-exporting in linux\-2.6.18 and later.
+Since aufs has no actual block device, you need to add NFS \[oq]fsid\[cq] option at
+exporting. Refer to the manual of NFS about the detail of this option.
+In linux\-2.6.23 and earlier,
+it is recommended to export your branch filesystems once before
+exporting aufs. By exporting once, the branch filesystem internal
+pointer named find_exported_dentry is initialized. After this
+initialization, you may unexport them.
+Additionally, this initialization should be done per the
+filesystem type. If your branches are all the same filesystem
+type, you need to export just one of them once.
+If you have never export a filesystem which is used in your
+branches, aufs will initialize the internal pointer by the default
+value, and produce a
+warning. While it will work correctly, I am afraid it will be unsafe
+in the future.
+In linux\-2.6.24 and later, this exporting is unnecessary.
+Additionally, there are several limitations or requirements.
+The version of linux kernel must be linux\-2.6.18 or later.
+You need to enable CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT.
+The branch filesystem must support NFS-exporting. For example, tmpfs in
+linux\-2.6.18 (or earlier) does not support it.
+NFSv2 is not supported. When you mount the exported aufs from your NFS
+client, you will need to some NFS options like v3 or nfsvers=v3,
+especially if it is nfsroot.
+If the size of the NFS file handle on your branch filesystem is large,
+aufs will
+not be able to handle it. The maximum size of NFSv3 file
+handle for a filesystem is 64 bytes. Aufs uses 24 bytes for 32bit
+system, plus 12 bytes for 64bit system. The rest is a room for a file
+handle of a branch filesystem.
+The External Inode Number Bitmap and Translation Table (xino) is
+required since NFS file
+handle is based upon inode number. The mount option \[oq]xino\[cq] is enabled
+by default.
+The branch filesystems must be accessible, which means \[oq]not hidden.\[cq]
+It means you need to \[oq]mount \-\-move\[cq] when you use initramfs and
+switch_root(8), or chroot(8).
+.\" .Bu
+.\" The \[oq]noplink\[cq] option is recommended, currently.
+.\" .Bu
+.\" If you add/del branches many times between the accesses to the same file
+.\" from the same NFS client,
+.\" and the number of the add/del operation is greater than the maximum
+.\" number of branches, then aufs may not handle the request from the NFS
+.\" client correctly.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Dentry and Inode Caches
+If you want to clear caches on your system, there are several tricks
+for that. If your system ram is low,
+try \[oq]find /large/dir \-ls > /dev/null\[cq].
+It will read many inodes and dentries and cache them. Then old caches will be
+But when you have large ram or you do not have such large
+directory, it is not effective.
+If you want to discard cache within a certain filesystem,
+try \[oq]mount \-o remount /your/mntpnt\[cq]. Some filesystem may return an error of
+EINVAL or something, but VFS discards the unused dentry/inode caches on the
+specified filesystem.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Compatible/Incompatible with Unionfs Version 1.x Series
+If you compile aufs with \-DCONFIG_AUFS_COMPAT, dirs= option and =nfsro
+branch permission flag are available. They are interpreted as
+br: option and =ro flags respectively.
+ \[oq]debug\[cq], \[oq]delete\[cq], \[oq]imap\[cq] options are ignored silently. When you
+compile aufs without \-DCONFIG_AUFS_COMPAT, these three options are
+also ignored, but a warning message is issued.
+Ignoring \[oq]delete\[cq] option, and to keep filesystem consistency, aufs tries
+writing something to only one branch in a single systemcall. It means
+aufs may copyup even if the copyup-src branch is specified as writable.
+For example, you have two writable branches and a large regular file
+on the lower writable branch. When you issue rename(2) to the file on aufs,
+aufs may copyup it to the upper writable branch.
+If this behaviour is not what you want, then you should rename(2) it
+on the lower branch directly.
+And there is a simple shell
+script \[oq]unionctl\[cq] under sample subdirectory, which is compatible with
+unionctl(8) in
+Unionfs Version 1.x series, except \-\-query action.
+This script executes mount(8) with \[oq]remount\[cq] option and uses
+add/del/mod aufs mount options.
+If you are familiar with Unionfs Version 1.x series and want to use unionctl(8), you can
+try this script instead of using mount \-o remount,... directly.
+Aufs does not support ioctl(2) interface.
+This script is highly depending upon mount(8) in
+util\-linux\-2.12p package, and you need to mount /proc to use this script.
+If your mount(8) version differs, you can try modifying this
+script. It is very easy.
+The unionctl script is just for a sample usage of aufs remount
+Aufs uses the external inode number bitmap and translation table by
+The default branch permission for the first branch is \[oq]rw\[cq], and the
+rest is \[oq]ro.\[cq]
+The whiteout is for hiding files on lower branches. Also it is applied
+to stop readdir going lower branches.
+The latter case is called \[oq]opaque directory.\[cq] Any
+whiteout is an empty file, it means whiteout is just an mark.
+In the case of hiding lower files, the name of whiteout is
+And in the case of stopping readdir, the name is
+\[oq]\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_PFX].opq\[cq] or
+\[oq]\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]__dir_opaque.\[cq] The name depends upon your compile
+.\" All of newly created or renamed directory will be opaque.
+All whiteouts are hardlinked,
+including \[oq]<writable branch top dir>/\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]\*[AUFS_WH_BASENAME].\[cq]
+The hardlink on an ordinary (disk based) filesystem does not
+consume inode resource newly. But in linux tmpfs, the number of free
+inodes will be decremented by link(2). It is recommended to specify
+nr_inodes option to your tmpfs if you meet ENOSPC. Use this option
+after checking by \[oq]df \-i.\[cq]
+When you rmdir or rename-to the dir who has a number of whiteouts,
+aufs rename the dir to the temporary whiteouted-name like
+\[oq]\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]<dir>.<random hex>.\[cq] Then remove it after actual operation.
+cf. mount option \[oq]dirwh.\[cq]
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH Incompatible with an Ordinary Filesystem
+stat(2) returns the inode info from the first existence inode among
+the branches, except the directory link count.
+Aufs computes the directory link count larger than the exact value usually, in
+order to keep UNIX filesystem semantics, or in order to shut find(1) mouth up.
+The size of a directory may be wrong too, but it has to do no harm.
+The timestamp of a directory will not be updated when a file is
+created or removed under it, and it was done on a lower branch.
+The test for permission bits has two cases. One is for a directory,
+and the other is for a non-directory. In the case of a directory, aufs
+checks the permission bits of all existing directories. It means you
+need the correct privilege for the directories including the lower
+.\" You can change this behaviour with \[oq]dirperm1\[cq] mount option.
+The test for a non-directory is more simple. It checks only the
+topmost inode.
+statfs(2) returns the first branch info except namelen. The namelen is
+decreased by the whiteout prefix length.
+Remember, seekdir(3) and telldir(3) are not defined in POSIX. They may
+not work as you expect. Try rewinddir(3) or re-open the dir.
+The whiteout prefix (\*[AUFS_WH_PFX]) is reserved on all branches. Users should
+not handle the filename begins with this prefix.
+In order to future whiteout, the maxmum filename length is limited by
+the longest value \- \*[AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN]. It may be a violation of POSIX.
+If you dislike the difference between the aufs entries in /etc/mtab
+and /proc/mounts, and if you are using mount(8) in util\-linux package,
+then try ./mount.aufs script. Copy the script to /sbin/mount.aufs.
+This simple script tries updating
+/etc/mtab. If you do not care about /etc/mtab, you can ignore this
+Remember this script is highly depending upon mount(8) in
+util\-linux\-2.12p package, and you need to mount /proc.
+Since aufs uses its own inode and dentry, your system may cache huge
+number of inodes and dentries. It can be as twice as all of the files
+in your union.
+It means that unmounting or remounting readonly at shutdown time may
+take a long time, since mount(2) in VFS tries freeing all of the cache
+on the target filesystem.
+.\" In this case, you had better try \[oq]echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches\[cq]
+.\" just before unmounting in shutdown procedure.
+.\" It frees unused inodes and dentries quickly.
+.\" If your system cache is not so large, you do not need this trick.
+When you open a directory, aufs will open several directories
+It means you may reach the limit of the number of file descriptor.
+And when the lower directory cannot be opened, aufs will close all the
+opened upper directories and return an error.
+The sub-mount under the branch
+of local filesystem
+is ignored.
+For example, if you have mount another filesystem on
+/branch/another/mntpnt, the files under \[oq]mntpnt\[cq] will be ignored by aufs.
+It is recommended to mount the sub-mount under the mounted aufs.
+For example,
+# sudo mount /dev/sdaXX /ro_branch
+# d=another/mntpnt
+# sudo mount /dev/sdbXX /ro_branch/$d
+# mkdir -p /rw_branch/$d
+# sudo mount -t aufs -o br:/rw_branch:/ro_branch none /aufs
+# sudo mount -t aufs -o br:/rw_branch/${d}:/ro_branch/${d} none /aufs/another/$d
+There are several characters which are not allowed to use in a branch
+directory path and xino filename. See detail in Branch Syntax and Mount
+The file-lock which means fcntl(2) with F_SETLK, F_SETLKW or F_GETLK, flock(2)
+and lockf(3), is applied to virtual aufs file only, not to the file on a
+branch. It means you can break the lock by accessing a branch directly.
+TODO: check \[oq]security\[cq] to hook locks, as inotify does.
+The fsync(2) and fdatasync(2) systemcalls return 0 which means success, even
+if the given file descriptor is not opened for writing.
+I am afraid this behaviour may violate some standards. Checking the
+behaviour of fsync(2) on ext2, aufs decided to return success.
+If you want to use disk-quota, you should set it up to your writable
+branch since aufs does not have its own block device.
+When your aufs is the root directory of your system, and your system
+tells you some of the filesystem were not unmounted cleanly, try these
+procedure when you shutdown your system.
+# mount -no remount,ro /
+# for i in $writable_branches
+# do mount -no remount,ro $i
+# done
+If your xino file is on a hard drive, you also need to specify
+\[oq]noxino\[cq] option or \[oq]xino=/your/tmpfs/xino\[cq] at remounting root
+To rename(2) directory may return EXDEV even if both of src and tgt
+are on the same aufs. When the rename-src dir exists on multiple
+branches and the lower dir has child(ren), aufs has to copyup all his
+children. It can be recursive copyup. Current aufs does not support
+such huge copyup operation at one time in kernel space, instead
+produces a warning and returns EXDEV.
+Generally, mv(1) detects this error and tries mkdir(2) and
+rename(2) or copy/unlink recursively. So the result is harmless.
+If your application which issues rename(2) for a directory does not
+support EXDEV, it will not work on aufs.
+Also this specification is applied to the case when the src directroy
+exists on the lower readonly branch and it has child(ren).
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+The mount options are interpreted from left to right at remount-time.
+These examples
+shows how the options are handled. (assuming /sbin/mount.aufs was
+# mount -v -t aufs br:/day0:/base none /u
+none on /u type aufs (rw,xino=/day0/.aufs.xino,br:/day0=rw:/base=ro)
+# mount -v -o remount,\\
+ prepend:/day1,\\
+ xino=/day1/xino,\\
+ mod:/day0=ro,\\
+ del:/day0 \\
+ /u
+none on /u type aufs (rw,xino=/day1/xino,br:/day1=rw:/base=ro)
+# mount -t aufs br:/rw none /u
+# mount -o remount,append:/ro /u
+different uid/gid/permission, /ro
+# mount -o remount,del:/ro /u
+# mount -o remount,nowarn_perm,append:/ro /u
+(there is no warning)
+.\" If you want to expand your filesystem size, aufs may help you by
+.\" adding an writable branch. Since aufs supports multiple writable
+.\" branches, the old writable branch can be being writable, if you want.
+.\" In this example, any modifications to the files under /ro branch will
+.\" be copied-up to /new, but modifications to the files under /rw branch
+.\" will not.
+.\" And the next example shows the modifications to the files under /rw branch
+.\" will be copied-up to /new/a.
+.\" Todo: test multiple writable branches policy. cpup=nearest, cpup=exist_parent.
+.\" .nf
+.\" # mount -v -t aufs br:/rw:/ro none /u
+.\" none on /u type aufs (rw,xino=/rw/.aufs.xino,br:/rw=rw:/ro=ro)
+.\" # mkfs /new
+.\" # mount -v -o remount,add:1:/new=rw /u
+.\" none on /u type aufs (rw,xino=/rw/.aufs.xino,br:/rw=rw:/new=rw:/ro=ro)
+.\" .fi
+.\" .nf
+.\" # mount -v -t aufs br:/rw:/ro none /u
+.\" none on /u type aufs (rw,xino=/rw/.aufs.xino,br:/rw=rw:/ro=ro)
+.\" # mkfs /new
+.\" # mkdir /new/a new/b
+.\" # mount -v -o remount,add:1:/new/b=rw,prepend:/new/a,mod:/rw=ro /u
+.\" none on /u type aufs (rw,xino=/rw/.aufs.xino,br:/new/a=rw:/rw=ro:/new/b=rw:/ro=ro)
+.\" .fi
+When you use aufs as root filesystem, it is recommended to consider to
+exclude some directories. For example, /tmp and /var/log are not need
+to stack in many cases. They do not usually need to copyup or to whiteout.
+Also the swapfile on aufs (a regular file, not a block device) is not
+And there is a good sample which is for network booted diskless machines. See
+sample/ in detail.
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+When you add an branch to your union, aufs may warn you about the
+privilege or security of the branch, which is the permission bits,
+owner and group of the top directory of the branch.
+For example, when your upper writable branch has a world writable top
+a malicious user can create any files on the writable branch directly,
+like copyup and modify manually. I am afraid it can be a security
+When you mount or remount your union without \-o ro common mount option
+and without writable branch, aufs will warn you that the first branch
+should be writable.
+.\" It is discouraged to set both of \[oq]udba\[cq] and \[oq]noxino\[cq] mount options. In
+.\" this case the inode number under aufs will always be changed and may
+.\" reach the end of inode number which is a maximum of unsigned long. If
+.\" the inode number reaches the end, aufs will return EIO repeatedly.
+When you set udba other than inotify and change something on your
+branch filesystem directly, later aufs may detect some mismatches to
+its cache. If it is a critical mismatch, aufs returns EIO and issues a
+warning saying \[oq]try udba=inotify.\[cq]
+When an error occurs in aufs, aufs prints the kernel message with
+\[oq]errno.\[cq] The priority of the message (log level) is ERR or WARNING which
+depends upon the message itself.
+You can convert the \[oq]errno\[cq] into the error message by perror(3),
+strerror(3) or something.
+For example, the \[oq]errno\[cq] in the message \[oq]I/O Error, write failed (\-28)\[cq]
+is 28 which means ENOSPC or \[oq]No space left on device.\[cq]
+.\" .SH Current Limitation
+.\" ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" briefly describes the command or function\[aq]s interface. For commands, this
+.\" shows the syntax of the command and its arguments (including options); bold-
+.\" face is used for as-is text and italics are used to indicate replaceable
+.\" arguments. Brackets ([]) surround optional arguments, vertical bars (|) sep-
+.\" arate choices, and ellipses (...) can be repeated. For functions, it shows
+.\" any required data declarations or #include directives, followed by the func-
+.\" tion declaration.
+.\" gives an explanation of what the command, function, or format does. Discuss
+.\" how it interacts with files and standard input, and what it produces on
+.\" standard output or standard error. Omit internals and implementation
+.\" details unless they\[aq]re critical for understanding the interface. Describe
+.\" the usual case; for information on options use the OPTIONS section. If
+.\" there is some kind of input grammar or complex set of subcommands, consider
+.\" describing them in a separate USAGE section (and just place an overview in
+.\" the DESCRIPTION section).
+.\" gives a list of the values the library routine will return to the caller and
+.\" the conditions that cause these values to be returned.
+.\" lists the possible exit status values or a program and the conditions that
+.\" cause these values to be returned.
+.\" USAGE
+.\" describes the grammar of any sublanguage this implements.
+.\" FILES
+.\" lists the files the program or function uses, such as configuration files,
+.\" startup files, and files the program directly operates on. Give the full
+.\" pathname of these files, and use the installation process to modify the
+.\" directory part to match user preferences. For many programs, the default
+.\" installation location is in /usr/local, so your base manual page should use
+.\" /usr/local as the base.
+.\" lists all environment variables that affect your program or function and how
+.\" they affect it.
+.\" discusses security issues and implications. Warn about configurations or
+.\" environments that should be avoided, commands that may have security impli-
+.\" cations, and so on, especially if they aren\[aq]t obvious. Discussing security
+.\" in a separate section isn\[aq]t necessary; if it\[aq]s easier to understand, place
+.\" security information in the other sections (such as the DESCRIPTION or USAGE
+.\" section). However, please include security information somewhere!
+.\" describes any standards or conventions this implements.
+.\" NOTES
+.\" provides miscellaneous notes.
+.\" BUGS
+.\" lists limitations, known defects or inconveniences, and other questionable
+.\" activities.
+Copyright \(co 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Junjiro Okajima
+Junjiro Okajima
+.\" lists related man pages in alphabetical order, possibly followed by other
+.\" related pages or documents. Conventionally this is the last section.

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