Re: USB mass storage and ARM cache coherency

From: Catalin Marinas
Date: Mon Mar 01 2010 - 05:39:23 EST

On Sun, 2010-02-28 at 05:01 +0000, James Bottomley wrote:
> On Sun, 2010-02-28 at 11:14 +1100, Benjamin Herrenschmidt wrote:
> > On Fri, 2010-02-26 at 21:00 +0000, Russell King - ARM Linux wrote:
> > > On Fri, Feb 26, 2010 at 04:25:21PM +0000, Catalin Marinas wrote:
> > > > For mmap'ed pages (and present in the page cache), is it guaranteed that
> > > > the HCD driver won't write to it once it has been mapped into user
> > > > space? If that's the case, it may solve the problem by just reversing
> > > > the meaning of PG_arch_1 on ARM and assume that a newly allocated page
> > > > has dirty D-cache by default.
> > >
> > > I guess we could also set PG_arch_1 in the DMA API as well, to avoid the
> > > unnecessary D cache flushing when clean pages get mapped into userspace.
> >
> > That's an interesting thought for us too. When doing I$/D$ coherency, we
> > have to fist flush the D$ and then invalidate the I$. If we could keep
> > track of D$ and I$ separately, we could avoid the first step in many
> > cases, including the DMA API trick you mentioned.
> >
> > I wonder if it's time to get a PG_arch_2 :-)
> Sorry to be a bit late to the party (on holiday), but I/D coherency is
> supposed to be taken care of using flush_cache_page in the memory
> mapping routines. On parisc, at least, we don't use any PG_arch flags
> to help. The way it's supposed to work is that I is invalidated on
> mapping or remapping, so the I/O code only needs to worry about flushing
> D. The guarantee we pass to userland is that any page we do I/O to has
> a clean D cache before it goes back to userspace. Thus if userspace
> executes the page, the I cache gets its first movein there. There is an
> underlying assumption to all of this: The CPU won't speculatively move
> in I cache until the page is executed, so we can rely on the
> flush_cache_page in the mapping to keep the I cache invalidated until
> we're ready to execute.

We cannot guarantee this assumption on ARM. As soon as the page is
accessible and executable, the CPU can fetch into the I-cache
speculatively. Even if the page hasn't been mapped into user-space yet,
we still have the kernel linear mapping via which we can get the same
I-cache lines fetched (PIPT cache).

The only place we can safely invalidate the I-cache is after the D-cache
was flushed (after flush_dcache_page).

On ARM PIPT, flush_cache_page is a no-op.

> The other fundamental assumption is that if
> userspace needs to modify an executable region (say for dynamic linking)
> it has to take care of reinvalidating the I cache itself ... although it
> can do this by remapping the region to alter the flags (i.e W no X then
> X no W).

The ARM dynamic linker remaps the page with no-exec, writes the data and
then remaps it back with exec. The COW code flushes the D-cache. Anyway,
recent dynamic linker no longer touches a code page.
> But the point of all of this is that I cache invalidation doesn't appear
> anywhere in the I/O path ... so if we're getting I/D incoherency,
> there's some problem in the mm code (or there's a missing arch
> assumption ... like I cache gets moved in more aggressively than we
> expect). Parisc is very sensitive to I/D incoherency, so we'd notice if
> there were a serious generic problem here.

On ARM PIPT, it's probably because flush_cache_page isn't implemented.
But as I said above, given the speculative fetches I don't think it
would help much (well, it would work a bit better but not a complete



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