[RFC v5 0/8] Support volatile for anonymous range

From: Minchan Kim
Date: Wed Jan 02 2013 - 23:28:48 EST

This is still RFC because we need more input from user-space
people, more stress test, design discussion about interface/reclaim
policy of volatile pages and I want to expand this concept to tmpfs
volatile range if it is possbile without big performance drop of
anonymous volatile range.
(Let's define our term. anon volatile VS tmpfs volatile? John?)

I hope more inputs from user-space allocator people and test patch
with their allocator because it might need design change of arena
management for getting real vaule.

* Improve volatile range scanning speed
* Aware of NUMA policy with vma's mempolicy
* Add direct reclaim hook for discarding volatile pages first
* Support tmpfs-volatile

Changelog from v5 - There are many changes.

* Working with THP/KSM
* Remove vma hacking logic in m[no]volatile system call
* Discard page without swap cache
* Kswapd discard volatile page so we can discard volatile pages
although we don't have swap.

Changelog from v4

* Add new system call mvolatile/mnovolatile
* Add sigbus when user try to access volatile range
* Rebased on v3.7
* Applied bug fix from John Stultz, Thanks!

Changelog from v3

* Removing madvise(addr, length, MADV_NOVOLATILE).
* add vmstat about the number of discarded volatile pages
* discard volatile pages without promotion in reclaim path

This is based on v3.7

- What's the mvolatile(addr, length)?

It's a hint that user deliver to kernel so kernel can *discard*
pages in a range anytime.

- What happens if user access page(ie, virtual address) discarded
by kernel?

The user can encounter SIGBUS.

- What should user do for avoding SIGBUS?
He should call mnovolatie(addr, length) before accessing the range
which was called by mvolatile.

- What happens if user access page(ie, virtual address) doesn't
discarded by kernel?

The user can see old data without page fault.

- What's different with madvise(DONTNEED)?

System call semantic

DONTNEED makes sure user always can see zero-fill pages after
he calls madvise while mvolatile can see old data or encounter

Internal implementation

The madvise(DONTNEED) should zap all mapped pages in range so
overhead is increased linearly with the number of mapped pages.
Even, if user access zapped pages as write mode, page fault +
page allocation + memset should be happened.

The mvolatile just marks the flag in a range(ie, VMA) instead of
zapping all of pte in the vma so it doesn't touch ptes any more.

- What's the benefit compared to DONTNEED?

1. The system call overhead is smaller because mvolatile just marks
the flag to VMA instead of zapping all the page in a range so
overhead should be very small.

2. It has a chance to eliminate overheads (ex, zapping pte + page fault
+ page allocation + memset(PAGE_SIZE)) if memory pressure isn't

3. It has a potential to zap all ptes and free the pages if memory
pressure is severe so reclaim overhead could be disappear - TODO

- Isn't there any drawback?

Madvise(DONTNEED) doesn't need exclusive mmap_sem so concurrent page
fault of other threads could be allowed. But m[no]volatile needs
exclusive mmap_sem so other thread would be blocked if they try to
access not-yet-mapped pages. That's why I design m[no]volatile
overhead should be small as far as possible.

It could suffer from max rss usage increasement because madvise(DONTNEED)
deallocates pages instantly when the system call is issued while mvoatile
delays it until memory pressure happens so if memory pressure is severe by
max rss incresement, system would suffer. First of all, allocator needs
some balance logic for that or kernel might handle it by zapping pages
although user calls mvolatile if memory pressure is severe.
The problem is how we know memory pressure is severe.
One of solution is to see kswapd is active or not. Another solution is
Anton's mempressure so allocator can handle it.

- What's for targetting?

Firstly, user-space allocator like ptmalloc, tcmalloc or heap management
of virtual machine like Dalvik. Also, it comes in handy for embedded
which doesn't have swap device so they can't reclaim anonymous pages.
By discarding instead of swapout, it could be used in the non-swap system.

- Stupid performance test
I attach test program/script which are utter crap and I don't expect
current smart allocator never have done it so we need more practical data
with real allocator.

KVM - 8 core, 2G

13.16user 7.58system 0:06.04elapsed 343%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 2624096maxresident)k
0inputs+0outputs (0major+164050minor)pagefaults 0swaps

23.30user 228.92system 0:33.10elapsed 762%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 213088maxresident)k
0inputs+0outputs (0major+16384210minor)pagefaults 0swaps

x86-64 - 12 core, 2G

33.38user 0.44system 0:02.87elapsed 1178%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 3935008maxresident)k
0inputs+0outputs (0major+245989minor)pagefaults 0swaps

28.02user 41.25system 0:05.80elapsed 1192%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 387776maxresident)k

[1] 74e3f3c3, vmscan: prevent background aging of anon page in no swap system

Any comments are welcome!

Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@xxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Arun Sharma <asharma@xxxxxx>
Cc: sanjay@xxxxxxxxxx
Cc: Paul Turner <pjt@xxxxxxxxxx>
CC: David Rientjes <rientjes@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: John Stultz <john.stultz@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@xxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Android Kernel Team <kernel-team@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Robert Love <rlove@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@xxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@xxxxxxx>
Cc: Mike Hommey <mh@xxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Taras Glek <tglek@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@xxxxxxxxx>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx>

Minchan Kim (8):
Introduce new system call mvolatile
Don't allow volatile attribute on THP and KSM
bail out when the page is in VOLATILE vma
add page_locked parameter in free_swap_and_cache
Discard volatile page
add PGVOLATILE vmstat count
add volatile page discard hook to kswapd
extend PGVOLATILE vmstat to kswapd

arch/x86/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl | 2 +
fs/exec.c | 4 +-
include/linux/memory.h | 2 +
include/linux/mm.h | 6 +-
include/linux/mm_types.h | 4 +
include/linux/mvolatile.h | 63 +++
include/linux/rmap.h | 2 +
include/linux/sched.h | 1 +
include/linux/swap.h | 6 +-
include/linux/syscalls.h | 2 +
include/linux/vm_event_item.h | 4 +
kernel/fork.c | 2 +
mm/Kconfig | 11 +
mm/Makefile | 2 +-
mm/fremap.c | 2 +-
mm/huge_memory.c | 9 +-
mm/internal.h | 2 +
mm/ksm.c | 3 +-
mm/madvise.c | 2 +-
mm/memory.c | 12 +-
mm/mempolicy.c | 2 +-
mm/mlock.c | 7 +-
mm/mmap.c | 62 ++-
mm/mprotect.c | 3 +-
mm/mremap.c | 2 +-
mm/mvolatile.c | 813 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
mm/rmap.c | 11 +-
mm/shmem.c | 2 +-
mm/swapfile.c | 7 +-
mm/vmscan.c | 57 ++-
mm/vmstat.c | 4 +
31 files changed, 1065 insertions(+), 46 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 include/linux/mvolatile.h
create mode 100644 mm/mvolatile.c

================== 8< =============================

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <stdio.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include <sched.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/syscall.h>

#define SYS_mvolatile 313
#define SYS_mnovolatile 314

#define ALLOC_SIZE (8 << 20)
#define MAP_SIZE (ALLOC_SIZE * 10)
#define PAGE_SIZE (1 << 12)
#define RETRY 100

pthread_barrier_t barrier;
int mode;

static int mvolatile(void *addr, size_t length)
return syscall(SYS_mvolatile, addr, length);

static int mnovolatile(void *addr, size_t length)
return syscall(SYS_mnovolatile, addr, length);

void *thread_entry(void *data)
unsigned long i;
cpu_set_t set;
int cpu = *(int*)data;
void *mmap_area;
int retry = RETRY;

CPU_SET(cpu, &set);
sched_setaffinity(0, sizeof(set), &set);

if (mmap_area == MAP_FAILED) {
fprintf(stderr, "Fail to mmap [%d]\n", *(int*)data);


while(retry--) {
if (mode == VOLATILE_MODE) {
mvolatile(mmap_area, MAP_SIZE);
for (i = 0; i < MAP_SIZE; i+= ALLOC_SIZE) {
mnovolatile(mmap_area + i, ALLOC_SIZE);
memset(mmap_area + i, i, ALLOC_SIZE);
mvolatile(mmap_area + i, ALLOC_SIZE);
} else {
for (i = 0; i < MAP_SIZE; i += ALLOC_SIZE) {
memset(mmap_area + i, i, ALLOC_SIZE);
madvise(mmap_area + i, ALLOC_SIZE, MADV_DONTNEED);
return NULL;

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
int i, nr_thread;
int *data;

if (argc < 3)
return 1;

nr_thread = atoi(argv[1]);
mode = atoi(argv[2]);

pthread_t *thread = malloc(sizeof(pthread_t) * nr_thread);
data = malloc(sizeof(int) * nr_thread);
pthread_barrier_init(&barrier, NULL, nr_thread);

for (i = 0; i < nr_thread; i++) {
data[i] = i;
if (pthread_create(&thread[i], NULL, thread_entry, &data[i])) {
perror("Fail to create thread\n");

for (i = 0; i < nr_thread; i++) {
if (pthread_join(thread[i], NULL))
perror("Fail to join thread\n");
printf("[%d] thread done\n", i);

return 0;


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