Re: [BUG] Slab corruption during XFS writeback under memory pressure

From: Dave Chinner
Date: Mon Jul 18 2016 - 02:02:29 EST

On Sun, Jul 17, 2016 at 10:00:03AM +1000, Dave Chinner wrote:
> On Fri, Jul 15, 2016 at 05:18:02PM -0700, Calvin Owens wrote:
> > Hello all,
> >
> > I've found a nasty source of slab corruption. Based on seeing similar symptoms
> > on boxes at Facebook, I suspect it's been around since at least 3.10.
> >
> > It only reproduces under memory pressure so far as I can tell: the issue seems
> > to be that XFS reclaims pages from buffers that are still in use by
> > scsi/block. I'm not sure which side the bug lies on, but I've only observed it
> > with XFS.
> But this indicates that the page is under writeback at this point,
> so that tends to indicate that the above freeing was incorrect.
> Hmmm - it's clear we've got direct reclaim involved here, and the
> suspicion of a dirty page that has had it's bufferheads cleared.
> Are there any other warnings in the log from XFS prior to kasan
> throwing the error?

Can you try the patch below?

Dave Chinner

xfs: bufferhead chains are invalid after end_page_writeback

From: Dave Chinner <dchinner@xxxxxxxxxx>

In xfs_finish_page_writeback(), we have a loop that looks like this:

do {
if (off < bvec->bv_offset)
goto next_bh;
if (off > end)
bh->b_end_io(bh, !error);
off += bh->b_size;
} while ((bh = bh->b_this_page) != head);

The b_end_io function is end_buffer_async_write(), which will call
end_page_writeback() once all the buffers have marked as no longer
under IO. This issue here is that the only thing currently
protecting both the bufferhead chain and the page from being
reclaimed is the PageWriteback state held on the page.

While we attempt to limit the loop to just the buffers covered by
the IO, we still read from the buffer size and follow the next
pointer in the bufferhead chain. There is no guarantee that either
of these are valid after the PageWriteback flag has been cleared.
Hence, loops like this are completely unsafe, and result in
use-after-free issues. One such problem was caught by Calvin Owens
with KASAN:

INFO: Freed in 0x103fc80ec age=18446651500051355200 cpu=2165122683 pid=-1
Call Trace:
<IRQ> [<ffffffff81e8b8e4>] dump_stack+0x68/0x94
[<ffffffff8153a995>] print_trailer+0x115/0x1a0
[<ffffffff81541174>] object_err+0x34/0x40
[<ffffffff815436e7>] kasan_report_error+0x217/0x530
[<ffffffff81543b33>] __asan_report_load8_noabort+0x43/0x50
[<ffffffff819d651f>] xfs_destroy_ioend+0x3bf/0x4c0
[<ffffffff819d69d4>] xfs_end_bio+0x154/0x220
[<ffffffff81de0c58>] bio_endio+0x158/0x1b0
[<ffffffff81dff61b>] blk_update_request+0x18b/0xb80
[<ffffffff821baf57>] scsi_end_request+0x97/0x5a0
[<ffffffff821c5558>] scsi_io_completion+0x438/0x1690
[<ffffffff821a8d95>] scsi_finish_command+0x375/0x4e0
[<ffffffff821c3940>] scsi_softirq_done+0x280/0x340

Where the access is occuring during IO completion after the buffer
had been freed from direct memory reclaim.

Prevent use-after-free accidents in this end_io processing loop by
pre-calculating the loop conditionals before calling bh->b_end_io().
The loop is already limited to just the bufferheads covered by the
IO in progress, so the offset checks are sufficient to prevent
accessing buffers in the chain after end_page_writeback() has been
called by the the bh->b_end_io() callout.

Yet another example of why Bufferheads Must Die.

Signed-off-by: Dave Chinner <dchinner@xxxxxxxxxx>
fs/xfs/xfs_aops.c | 15 ++++++++++++---
1 file changed, 12 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/xfs/xfs_aops.c b/fs/xfs/xfs_aops.c
index 80714eb..0cfb944 100644
--- a/fs/xfs/xfs_aops.c
+++ b/fs/xfs/xfs_aops.c
@@ -87,6 +87,12 @@ xfs_find_bdev_for_inode(
* We're now finished for good with this page. Update the page state via the
* associated buffer_heads, paying attention to the start and end offsets that
* we need to process on the page.
+ *
+ * Landmine Warning: bh->b_end_io() will call end_page_writeback() on the last
+ * buffer in the IO. Once it does this, it is unsafe to access the bufferhead or
+ * the page at all, as we may be racing with memory reclaim and it can free both
+ * the bufferhead chain and the page as it will see the page as clean and
+ * unused.
static void
@@ -95,8 +101,9 @@ xfs_finish_page_writeback(
int error)
unsigned int end = bvec->bv_offset + bvec->bv_len - 1;
- struct buffer_head *head, *bh;
+ struct buffer_head *head, *bh, *next;
unsigned int off = 0;
+ unsigned int bsize;

ASSERT(bvec->bv_offset < PAGE_SIZE);
ASSERT((bvec->bv_offset & ((1 << inode->i_blkbits) - 1)) == 0);
@@ -105,15 +112,17 @@ xfs_finish_page_writeback(

bh = head = page_buffers(bvec->bv_page);

+ bsize = bh->b_size;
do {
+ next = bh->b_this_page;
if (off < bvec->bv_offset)
goto next_bh;
if (off > end)
bh->b_end_io(bh, !error);
- off += bh->b_size;
- } while ((bh = bh->b_this_page) != head);
+ off += bsize;
+ } while ((bh = next) != head);