Re: [PATCH 05/17] README: convert it to ReST markup
From: Diego Viola
Date: Tue Oct 04 2016 - 16:19:46 EST
On Tue, Oct 4, 2016 at 4:42 PM, Diego Viola <diego.viola@xxxxxxxxx> wrote:
> On Wed, Sep 21, 2016 at 4:09 PM, Mauro Carvalho Chehab
> <mchehab@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
>> Adjust the readme file for it to use the ReST markup:
>> - add chapter/section markups;
>> - use ``foo`` for commands;
>> - use :: for verbatim and script blocks;
>> - replace unsupported markup _foo_ by **foo**;
>> - add cross-references to other ReST files;
>> - use lower case on the section titles, to match other ReST files.
>> Signed-off-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
>> README | 105 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------------------
>> 1 file changed, 58 insertions(+), 47 deletions(-)
>> diff --git a/README b/README
>> index 09f34f78f2bb..3335b3b2973a 100644
>> --- a/README
>> +++ b/README
>> @@ -1,10 +1,12 @@
>> - Linux kernel release 4.x <http://kernel.org/>
>> +Linux kernel release 4.x <http://kernel.org/>
>> These are the release notes for Linux version 4. Read them carefully,
>> as they tell you what this is all about, explain how to install the
>> kernel, and what to do if something goes wrong.
>> -WHAT IS LINUX?
>> +What is Linux?
>> Linux is a clone of the operating system Unix, written from scratch by
>> Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across
>> @@ -18,7 +20,8 @@ WHAT IS LINUX?
>> It is distributed under the GNU General Public License - see the
>> accompanying COPYING file for more details.
>> -ON WHAT HARDWARE DOES IT RUN?
>> +On what hardware does it run?
>> Although originally developed first for 32-bit x86-based PCs (386 or higher),
>> today Linux also runs on (at least) the Compaq Alpha AXP, Sun SPARC and
>> @@ -34,7 +37,8 @@ ON WHAT HARDWARE DOES IT RUN?
>> Linux has also been ported to itself. You can now run the kernel as a
>> userspace application - this is called UserMode Linux (UML).
>> - There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on
>> the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to
>> @@ -53,14 +57,15 @@ DOCUMENTATION:
>> - The Documentation/DocBook/ subdirectory contains several guides for
>> kernel developers and users. These guides can be rendered in a
>> number of formats: PostScript (.ps), PDF, HTML, & man-pages, among others.
>> - After installation, "make psdocs", "make pdfdocs", "make htmldocs",
>> - or "make mandocs" will render the documentation in the requested format.
>> + After installation, ``make psdocs``, ``make pdfdocs``, ``make htmldocs``,
>> + or ``make mandocs`` will render the documentation in the requested format.
>> -INSTALLING the kernel source:
>> +Installing the kernel source
>> - If you install the full sources, put the kernel tarball in a
>> directory where you have permissions (e.g. your home directory) and
>> - unpack it:
>> + unpack it::
>> xz -cd linux-4.X.tar.xz | tar xvf -
>> @@ -74,12 +79,12 @@ INSTALLING the kernel source:
>> - You can also upgrade between 4.x releases by patching. Patches are
>> distributed in the xz format. To install by patching, get all the
>> newer patch files, enter the top level directory of the kernel source
>> - (linux-4.X) and execute:
>> + (linux-4.X) and execute::
>> xz -cd ../patch-4.x.xz | patch -p1
>> Replace "x" for all versions bigger than the version "X" of your current
>> - source tree, _in_order_, and you should be ok. You may want to remove
>> + source tree, **in_order**, and you should be ok. You may want to remove
>> the backup files (some-file-name~ or some-file-name.orig), and make sure
>> that there are no failed patches (some-file-name# or some-file-name.rej).
>> If there are, either you or I have made a mistake.
>> @@ -90,12 +95,12 @@ INSTALLING the kernel source:
>> and you want to apply the 4.0.3 patch, you must not first apply the 4.0.1
>> and 4.0.2 patches. Similarly, if you are running kernel version 4.0.2 and
>> want to jump to 4.0.3, you must first reverse the 4.0.2 patch (that is,
>> - patch -R) _before_ applying the 4.0.3 patch. You can read more on this in
>> - Documentation/applying-patches.txt
>> + patch -R) **before** applying the 4.0.3 patch. You can read more on this in
>> + :ref:`Documentation/applying-patches.txt <applying_patches>`.
>> Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this
>> process. It determines the current kernel version and applies any
>> - patches found.
>> + patches found::
>> linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux
>> @@ -103,55 +108,58 @@ INSTALLING the kernel source:
>> kernel source. Patches are applied from the current directory, but
>> an alternative directory can be specified as the second argument.
>> - - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around:
>> + - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around::
>> cd linux
>> make mrproper
>> You should now have the sources correctly installed.
>> -SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
>> +Software requirements
>> Compiling and running the 4.x kernels requires up-to-date
>> versions of various software packages. Consult
>> - Documentation/Changes for the minimum version numbers required
>> - and how to get updates for these packages. Beware that using
>> + :ref:`Documentation/Changes <changes>` for the minimum version numbers
>> + required and how to get updates for these packages. Beware that using
>> excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect
>> errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that
>> you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during
>> build or operation.
>> -BUILD directory for the kernel:
>> +Build directory for the kernel
>> When compiling the kernel, all output files will per default be
>> stored together with the kernel source code.
>> - Using the option "make O=output/dir" allows you to specify an alternate
>> + Using the option ``make O=output/dir`` allows you to specify an alternate
>> place for the output files (including .config).
>> - Example:
>> + Example::
>> kernel source code: /usr/src/linux-4.X
>> build directory: /home/name/build/kernel
>> - To configure and build the kernel, use:
>> + To configure and build the kernel, use::
>> cd /usr/src/linux-4.X
>> make O=/home/name/build/kernel menuconfig
>> make O=/home/name/build/kernel
>> sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel modules_install install
>> - Please note: If the 'O=output/dir' option is used, then it must be
>> + Please note: If the ``O=output/dir`` option is used, then it must be
>> used for all invocations of make.
>> -CONFIGURING the kernel:
>> +Configuring the kernel
>> Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor
>> version. New configuration options are added in each release, and
>> odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up
>> as expected. If you want to carry your existing configuration to a
>> - new version with minimal work, use "make oldconfig", which will
>> + new version with minimal work, use ``make oldconfig``, which will
>> only ask you for the answers to new questions.
>> - - Alternative configuration commands are:
>> + - Alternative configuration commands are::
>> "make config" Plain text interface.
>> @@ -223,7 +231,7 @@ CONFIGURING the kernel:
>> You can find more information on using the Linux kernel config tools
>> in Documentation/kbuild/kconfig.txt.
>> - - NOTES on "make config":
>> + - NOTES on ``make config``:
>> - Having unnecessary drivers will make the kernel bigger, and can
>> under some circumstances lead to problems: probing for a
>> @@ -242,22 +250,23 @@ CONFIGURING the kernel:
>> should probably answer 'n' to the questions for "development",
>> "experimental", or "debugging" features.
>> -COMPILING the kernel:
>> +Compiling the kernel
>> - Make sure you have at least gcc 3.2 available.
>> - For more information, refer to Documentation/Changes.
>> + For more information, refer to :ref:`Documentation/Changes <changes>`.
>> Please note that you can still run a.out user programs with this kernel.
>> - - Do a "make" to create a compressed kernel image. It is also
>> - possible to do "make install" if you have lilo installed to suit the
>> + - Do a ``make`` to create a compressed kernel image. It is also
>> + possible to do ``make install`` if you have lilo installed to suit the
>> kernel makefiles, but you may want to check your particular lilo setup first.
>> To do the actual install, you have to be root, but none of the normal
>> build should require that. Don't take the name of root in vain.
>> - - If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as `modules', you
>> - will also have to do "make modules_install".
>> + - If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as ``modules``, you
>> + will also have to do ``make modules_install``.
>> - Verbose kernel compile/build output:
>> @@ -265,12 +274,12 @@ COMPILING the kernel:
>> totally silent). However, sometimes you or other kernel developers need
>> to see compile, link, or other commands exactly as they are executed.
>> For this, use "verbose" build mode. This is done by passing
>> - "V=1" to the "make" command, e.g.
>> + ``V=1`` to the ``make`` command, e.g.::
>> make V=1 all
>> To have the build system also tell the reason for the rebuild of each
>> - target, use "V=2". The default is "V=0".
>> + target, use ``V=2``. The default is ``V=0``.
>> - Keep a backup kernel handy in case something goes wrong. This is
>> especially true for the development releases, since each new release
>> @@ -278,7 +287,7 @@ COMPILING the kernel:
>> backup of the modules corresponding to that kernel, as well. If you
>> are installing a new kernel with the same version number as your
>> working kernel, make a backup of your modules directory before you
>> - do a "make modules_install".
>> + do a ``make modules_install``.
>> Alternatively, before compiling, use the kernel config option
>> "LOCALVERSION" to append a unique suffix to the regular kernel version.
>> @@ -308,13 +317,14 @@ COMPILING the kernel:
>> reboot, and enjoy!
>> If you ever need to change the default root device, video mode,
>> - ramdisk size, etc. in the kernel image, use the 'rdev' program (or
>> + ramdisk size, etc. in the kernel image, use the ``rdev`` program (or
>> alternatively the LILO boot options when appropriate). No need to
>> recompile the kernel to change these parameters.
>> - Reboot with the new kernel and enjoy.
>> -IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:
>> +If something goes wrong
>> - If you have problems that seem to be due to kernel bugs, please check
>> the file MAINTAINERS to see if there is a particular person associated
>> @@ -328,7 +338,7 @@ IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:
>> sense). If the problem is new, tell me so, and if the problem is
>> old, please try to tell me when you first noticed it.
>> - - If the bug results in a message like
>> + - If the bug results in a message like::
>> unable to handle kernel paging request at address C0000010
>> Oops: 0002
>> @@ -348,7 +358,7 @@ IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:
>> on making sense of the dump is in Documentation/oops-tracing.txt
>> - If you compiled the kernel with CONFIG_KALLSYMS you can send the dump
>> - as is, otherwise you will have to use the "ksymoops" program to make
>> + as is, otherwise you will have to use the ``ksymoops`` program to make
>> sense of the dump (but compiling with CONFIG_KALLSYMS is usually preferred).
>> This utility can be downloaded from
>> ftp://ftp.<country>.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/ .
>> @@ -358,13 +368,13 @@ IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:
>> look up what the EIP value means. The hex value as such doesn't help
>> me or anybody else very much: it will depend on your particular
>> kernel setup. What you should do is take the hex value from the EIP
>> - line (ignore the "0010:"), and look it up in the kernel namelist to
>> + line (ignore the ``0010:``), and look it up in the kernel namelist to
>> see which kernel function contains the offending address.
>> To find out the kernel function name, you'll need to find the system
>> binary associated with the kernel that exhibited the symptom. This is
>> the file 'linux/vmlinux'. To extract the namelist and match it against
>> - the EIP from the kernel crash, do:
>> + the EIP from the kernel crash, do::
>> nm vmlinux | sort | less
>> @@ -383,18 +393,19 @@ IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:
>> If you for some reason cannot do the above (you have a pre-compiled
>> kernel image or similar), telling me as much about your setup as
>> - possible will help. Please read the REPORTING-BUGS document for details.
>> + possible will help. Please read the :ref:`REPORTING-BUGS <reportingbugs>`
>> + document for details.
>> - Alternatively, you can use gdb on a running kernel. (read-only; i.e. you
>> cannot change values or set break points.) To do this, first compile the
>> - kernel with -g; edit arch/x86/Makefile appropriately, then do a "make
>> - clean". You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via "make config").
>> + kernel with -g; edit arch/x86/Makefile appropriately, then do a ``make
>> + clean``. You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via ``make config``).
>> - After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do "gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore".
>> + After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do ``gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore``.
>> You can now use all the usual gdb commands. The command to look up the
>> - point where your system crashed is "l *0xXXXXXXXX". (Replace the XXXes
>> + point where your system crashed is ``l *0xXXXXXXXX``. (Replace the XXXes
>> with the EIP value.)
>> - gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because gdb (wrongly)
>> + gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because ``gdb`` (wrongly)
>> disregards the starting offset for which the kernel is compiled.
> I don't like this, why use :: rather than : for blocks? "e.g." doesn't
> need any :
> Also, you should make the underline fit the end of the title for consistency.
Looks like I was wrong, and for reST you actually need "::" for literal blocks.