[PATCH v13 13/13] x86/sgx: Driver documentation
From: Jarkko Sakkinen
Date: Mon Aug 27 2018 - 14:59:11 EST
Documentation of the features of the Software Guard eXtensions used
by the Linux kernel and basic design choices for the core and driver
Signed-off-by: Jarkko Sakkinen <jarkko.sakkinen@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Documentation/index.rst | 1 +
Documentation/x86/intel_sgx.rst | 185 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
2 files changed, 186 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/x86/intel_sgx.rst
diff --git a/Documentation/index.rst b/Documentation/index.rst
index 5db7e87c7cb1..1cdc139adb40 100644
@@ -104,6 +104,7 @@ implementation.
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/intel_sgx.rst b/Documentation/x86/intel_sgx.rst
new file mode 100644
@@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
+Intel(R) SGX driver
+Intel(R) SGX is a set of CPU instructions that can be used by applications to
+set aside private regions of code and data. The code outside the enclave is
+disallowed to access the memory inside the enclave by the CPU access control.
+In a way you can think that SGX provides inverted sandbox. It protects the
+application from a malicious host.
+You can tell if your CPU supports SGX by looking into ``/proc/cpuinfo``:
+ ``cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep sgx``
+Overview of SGX
+SGX has a set of data structures to maintain information about the enclaves and
+their security properties. BIOS reserves a fixed size region of physical memory
+for these structures by setting Processor Reserved Memory Range Registers
+This memory range is protected from outside access by the CPU and all the data
+coming in and out of the CPU package is encrypted by a key that is generated for
+each boot cycle.
+Enclaves execute in ring-3 in a special enclave submode using pages from the
+reserved memory range. A fixed logical address range for the enclave is reserved
+by ENCLS(ECREATE), a leaf instruction used to create enclaves. It is referred in
+the documentation commonly as the ELRANGE.
+Every memory access to the ELRANGE is asserted by the CPU. If the CPU is not
+executing in the enclave mode inside the enclave, #GP is raised. On the other
+hand enclave code can make memory accesses both inside and outside of the
+Enclave can only execute code inside the ELRANGE. Instructions that may cause
+VMEXIT, IO instructions and instructions that require a privilege change are
+prohibited inside the enclave. Interrupts and exceptions always cause enclave
+to exit and jump to an address outside the enclave given when the enclave is
+entered by using the leaf instruction ENCLS(EENTER).
+The protected memory range contains the following data:
+* **Enclave Page Cache (EPC):** protected pages
+* **Enclave Page Cache Map (EPCM):** a database that describes the state of the
+ pages and link them to an enclave.
+EPC has a number of different types of pages:
+* **SGX Enclave Control Structure (SECS)**: describes the global
+ properties of an enclave.
+* **Regular (REG):** code and data pages in the ELRANGE.
+* **Thread Control Structure (TCS):** pages that define entry points inside an
+ enclave. The enclave can only be entered through these entry points and each
+ can host a single hardware thread at a time.
+* **Version Array (VA)**: 64-bit version numbers for pages that have been
+ swapped outside the enclave. Each page contains 512 version numbers.
+To launch an enclave, two structures must be provided for ENCLS(EINIT):
+1. **SIGSTRUCT:** signed measurement of the enclave binary.
+2. **EINITTOKEN:** a cryptographic token CMAC-signed with a AES256-key called
+ *launch key*, which is re-generated for each boot cycle.
+The CPU holds a SHA256 hash of a 3072-bit RSA public key inside
+IA32_SGXLEPUBKEYHASHn MSRs. Enclaves with a SIGSTRUCT that is signed with this
+key do not require a valid EINITTOKEN and can be authorized with special
+privileges. One of those privileges is ability to acquire the launch key with
+**IA32_FEATURE_CONTROL** is used by the BIOS configure whether
+IA32_SGXLEPUBKEYHASH MSRs are read-only or read-write before locking the
+feature control register and handing over control to the operating system.
+The construction is started by filling out the SECS that contains enclave
+address range, privileged attributes and measurement of TCS and REG pages (pages
+that will be mapped to the address range) among the other things. This structure
+is passed out to the ENCLS(ECREATE) together with a physical address of a page
+in EPC that will hold the SECS.
+The pages are added with ENCLS(EADD) and measured with ENCLS(EEXTEND) i.e.
+SHA256 hash MRENCLAVE residing in the SECS is extended with the page data.
+After all of the pages have been added, the enclave is initialized with
+ENCLS(EINIT). ENCLS(INIT) checks that the SIGSTRUCT is signed with the contained
+public key. If the given EINITTOKEN has the valid bit set, the CPU checks that
+the token is valid (CMAC'd with the launch key). If the token is not valid,
+the CPU will check whether the enclave is signed with a key matching to the
+Enclave pages can be swapped out with ENCLS(EWB) to the unprotected memory. In
+addition to the EPC page, ENCLS(EWB) takes in a VA page and address for PCMD
+structure (Page Crypto MetaData) as input. The VA page will seal a version
+number for the page. PCMD is 128 byte structure that contains tracking
+information for the page, most importantly its MAC. With these structures the
+enclave is sealed and rollback protected while it resides in the unprotected
+Before the page can be swapped out it must not have any active TLB references.
+ENCLS(EBLOCK) instruction moves a page to the *blocked* state, which means
+that no new TLB entries can be created to it by the hardware threads.
+After this a shootdown sequence is started with ENCLS(ETRACK), which sets an
+increased counter value to the entering hardware threads. ENCLS(EWB) will
+return SGX_NOT_TRACKED error while there are still threads with the earlier
+couner value because that means that there might be hardware thread inside
+the enclave with TLB entries to pages that are to be swapped.
+Because SGX has an ever evolving and expanding feature set, it's possible for
+a BIOS or VMM to configure a system in such a way that not all CPUs are equal,
+e.g. where Launch Control is only enabled on a subset of CPUs. Linux does
+*not* support such a heterogeneous system configuration, nor does it even
+attempt to play nice in the face of a misconfigured system. With the exception
+of Launch Control's hash MSRs, which can vary per CPU, Linux assumes that all
+CPUs have a configuration that is identical to the boot CPU.
+Roles and responsibilities
+SGX introduces system resources, e.g. EPC memory, that must be accessible to
+multiple entities, e.g. the native kernel driver (to expose SGX to userspace)
+and KVM (to expose SGX to VMs), ideally without introducing any dependencies
+between each SGX entity. To that end, the kernel owns and manages the shared
+system resources, i.e. the EPC and Launch Control MSRs, and defines functions
+that provide appropriate access to the shared resources. SGX support for
+user space and VMs is left to the SGX platform driver and KVM respectively.
+The current kernel implementation supports only unlocked MSRs i.e.
+FEATURE_CONTROL_SGX_LE_WR must be set. The launch is performed by setting the
+MSRs to the hash of the public key modulus of the enclave signer, which is one
+f the fields in the SIGSTRUCT.
+Due to the unique requirements for swapping EPC pages, and because EPC pages
+(currently) do not have associated page structures, management of the EPC is
+not handled by the standard Linux swapper. SGX directly handles swapping
+of EPC pages, including a kthread to initiate reclaim and a rudimentary LRU
+mechanism. The consumers of EPC pages, e.g. the SGX driver, are required to
+implement function callbacks that can be invoked by the kernel to age,
+swap, and/or forcefully reclaim a target EPC page. In effect, the kernel
+controls what happens and when, while the consumers (driver, KVM, etc..) do
+the actual work.
+.. kernel-doc:: drivers/platform/x86/intel_sgx/sgx_ioctl.c
+ :functions: sgx_ioc_enclave_create
+.. kernel-doc:: arch/x86/include/uapi/asm/sgx.h
+* System Programming Manual: 39.1.4 Intel® SGX Launch Control Configuration