Re: [PATCH anybus v1 3/4] bus: support HMS Anybus-S bus.

From: Linus Walleij
Date: Tue Oct 30 2018 - 05:56:14 EST

Hi Sven,

some tries to answer questions... (I am no expert in this but
I try my best)

On Thu, Oct 25, 2018 at 5:21 PM <thesven73@xxxxxxxxx> wrote:

> I had originally architected this driver to be much simpler, with everything
> running in the context of the userspace threads (except obviously the
> interrupt). But it stood zero chance, the presence of the soft interrupt + the
> h/w requirement to lock/unlock the region when acking the soft interrupt meant
> that there were circular locking dependencies that always resulted in
> deadlock :(

I think the kernel should run all hardware drivers so IMO you did the
right thing.

> > also "buss" is a germanism isn't it? It should be just "anybus"?
> There are several different types of anybus:
> Anybus-M
> Anybus-S
> Anybus-CompactCOM
> This driver implements Anybus-S only. I had originally prefixed files and
> functions with anybus-s and anybus_s respectively, but it looked horrible
> visually:
> struct anybus_s_host *cd = data;
> drivers/bus/anybus-s-host.c
> include/linux/anybus-s-client.h

Hm I think this looks pretty neat actually. Anyways, in the overall
architecture explain the three Anybus:es and why things pertaining
to Anybus-s are named as they are.

> >> +static irqreturn_t irq_handler(int irq, void *data)
> >> +{
> >> + struct anybuss_host *cd = data;
> >> + int ind_ab;
> >> +
> >> + /* reading the anybus indicator register acks the interrupt */
> >> + ind_ab = read_ind_ab(cd->regmap);
> >> + if (ind_ab < 0)
> >> + return IRQ_NONE;
> >> + atomic_set(&cd->ind_ab, ind_ab);
> >> + complete(&cd->card_boot);
> >> + wake_up(&cd->wq);
> >> + return IRQ_HANDLED;
> >> +}
> > It looks a bit like you reinvent threaded interrupts but enlighten me
> > on the architecture and I might be able to get it.
> HMS Industrial Networks designed the anybus interrupt line to be dual purpose.
> In addition to being a 'real' interrupt during normal operation, it also signals
> that the card has initialized when coming out of reset. As this is a one-time
> thing, it needs a 'struct completion', not a wait_queue.

OK but you also have an atomic_set() going on and the struct completion
already contains a waitqueue and I start to worry about overuse of
primitives here. How does ps aux look on your system when running this?

> It is of course possible to emulate a struct completion using a waitqueue and
> an atomic variable, but wasn't struct completion invented to eliminate the
> subtle dangers of this?

The completion is a waitqueue entry and a spinlock, essentially.
But you're right, if you're waiting in process context for something
to happen, such as an ack interrupt for something you initiated,
a completion is the right abstraction to use.

> So this is why the irq_handler has to call both complete() and wake_up(), so
> it can't be modelled by a threaded interrupt.

It's just that when you do things like this:


I start asking: OK so why is that waitqueue not woken up from
wherever you are doing wait_for_completion()? I hope it is not
because you are waiting for the completion in the very same
waitqueue. That would be really messy.

So I guess what we like is clear program flow, as easy as possible
to follow what happens in the driver.

> Maybe if we use two separate irq_handlers: put the first one in place during
> initialization, then when the card is initialized, remove it and put a threaded
> one in place? Would this be a bit too complicated?

Nah one irq handler is fine, but you can have an optional
bottom half:

request_threaded_irq(irq, fastpath, slowpath...):

>From fastpath you return IRQ_WAKE_THREAD only
if you want to continue running the slowpath callback
in process context, else just complete() and
return IRQ_HANDLED and the slowpath thread will not be

> Yes, I am modeling a state machine.
> When userspace asks the anybus to do something, it throws a task into a queue,
> and waits on the completion of that task.
> The anybus processes the tasks sequentially, each task will go through
> multiple states before completing:
> userspace processes A B C
> | | |
> v v v
> -----------------
> | task waiting |
> | task waiting |
> | task waiting |
> |---------------|
> | task running |
> -----------------
> ^
> |
> -----------------
> | anybus process |
> | single-thread |
> | h/w access |
> ------------------
> There is only one single kernel thread that accesses the hardware and the queue.
> This prevents various subtle synchronization/deadlock issues related to the
> soft interrupts.

This should all go into the comment section on the top of the
C file so we understand what is going on :)
(Good explanation BTW.)

> The tasks change state by re-assigning their own task_fn callback:
> function do_state_1(self) {
> ...
> if (need state 2)
> self->task_fn = do_state_2;
> }
> function do_state_2(self) {
> ...
> if (need_state_1)
> self->task_fn = do_state_1;
> }
> I could have opted for a classic state machine in a single callback:
> function do_state(self) {
> switch (self->state) {
> case state_1:
> ...
> if (need_state_2)
> self->state = state_2;
> break;
> case state_2:
> ...
> if (need_state_1)
> self->state = state_1;
> break;
> }
> }
> But the former seemed easier to understand.

OK I honestly don't know what is the best way. But what about
calling that "task" a "state" instead so we know what is going
on (i.e. you are switching between different states in process

> >> +static void softint_ack(struct anybuss_host *cd)
> >> +static void process_softint(struct anybuss_host *cd)
> >
> > This looks like MSI (message signalled interrupt) and makes me think
> > that you should probably involve the irqchip maintainers. Interrupts
> > shall be represented in the irqchip abstraction.
> This is not a *real* software interrupt - it's just a bit in an internal
> register that gets set by the anybus on a certain condition, and needs
> to be ACKed. When the bit is set, the bus driver then tells userspace
> about it - anyone who is running poll/select on the sysfs node or devnode.
> The anybus documentation calls this a 'software interrupt'.

OK I get it... I think.

Silly question but why does userspace need to know about
this software interrupt? Can't you just hide that?
Userspace ABIs should be minimal.

> Right now I'm using platform_data for the bus driver's dependencies:
> (the irq is passed out-of-band, via platform_get_resource())
> +/**
> + * Platform data of the Anybus-S host controller.
> + *
> + * @regmap: provides access to the card dpram.
> + * MUST NOT use caching
> + * MUST NOT sleep
> + * @reset: controls the card reset line.
> + */
> +struct anybuss_host_pdata {
> + struct regmap *regmap;
> + anybuss_reset_t reset;
> +};
> Now imagine that the underlying anybus bridge is defined as a reset controller.
> I could not find a way to pass a reset controller handle through platform_data.
> It seemed possible via the devicetree only. I was developing on 4.9 at the time.

I don't get the question. The reset controller is a provider just
like a clock controller or regulator. You look up the resource
associated with your device.

The platform_data is surely associated with a struct device *
and the reset controller handle should be associated with the
same struct device* and obtained with

If you mean that you can't figure out how to associate a reset
controller handle with a device in the first place, then we need
to fix the reset controller subsystem to provide a mechanism for
that if there is not one already, not work around its shortcomings.
But reset_controller_add_lookup() seems to do what you want.
See for example drivers/clk/davinci/psc-da850.c
for an example of how to use that.

> So what if we pass the dependencies not via platform_data, but via the
> devicetree? In that case, I cannot find a way to pass the struct regmap
> via the devicetree...

The abstraction you associate resources with is struct device *
not device tree (nodes).

When I pass struct regmap to subdrivers I usually define a struct
that I pass in driver_data one way or another.
Sometimes I look up the driver_data of a parent by just
walking the ->parent hierarchy in struct device.

> Wait... are you talking about
> reset_controller_add_lookup() / devm_reset_control_get_exclusive() ?
> That's new to me, and only used in a single driver right now. Would that work?

Yeah I think so.

Linus Walleij