[RFC PATCH 00/14] Heterogeneous Memory System (HMS) and hbind()
Date: Mon Dec 03 2018 - 18:35:32 EST
From: JÃrÃme Glisse <jglisse@xxxxxxxxxx>
Heterogeneous memory system are becoming more and more the norm, in
those system there is not only the main system memory for each node,
but also device memory and|or memory hierarchy to consider. Device
memory can comes from a device like GPU, FPGA, ... or from a memory
only device (persistent memory, or high density memory device).
Memory hierarchy is when you not only have the main memory but also
other type of memory like HBM (High Bandwidth Memory often stack up
on CPU die or GPU die), peristent memory or high density memory (ie
something slower then regular DDR DIMM but much bigger).
On top of this diversity of memories you also have to account for the
system bus topology ie how all CPUs and devices are connected to each
others. Userspace do not care about the exact physical topology but
care about topology from behavior point of view ie what are all the
paths between an initiator (anything that can initiate memory access
like CPU, GPU, FGPA, network controller ...) and a target memory and
what are all the properties of each of those path (bandwidth, latency,
This means that it is no longer sufficient to consider a flat view
for each node in a system but for maximum performance we need to
account for all of this new memory but also for system topology.
This is why this proposal is unlike the HMAT proposal  which
tries to extend the existing NUMA for new type of memory. Here we
are tackling a much more profound change that depart from NUMA.
One of the reasons for radical change is the advance of accelerator
like GPU or FPGA means that CPU is no longer the only piece where
computation happens. It is becoming more and more common for an
application to use a mix and match of different accelerator to
perform its computation. So we can no longer satisfy our self with
a CPU centric and flat view of a system like NUMA and NUMA distance.
This patchset is a proposal to tackle this problems through three
1 - Expose complex system topology and various kind of memory
to user space so that application have a standard way and
single place to get all the information it cares about.
2 - A new API for user space to bind/provide hint to kernel on
which memory to use for range of virtual address (a new
3 - Kernel side changes for vm policy to handle this changes
This patchset is not and end to end solution but it provides enough
pieces to be useful against nouveau (upstream open source driver for
NVidia GPU). It is intended as a starting point for discussion so
that we can figure out what to do. To avoid having too much topics
to discuss i am not considering memory cgroup for now but it is
definitely something we will want to integrate with.
The rest of this emails is splits in 3 sections, the first section
talks about complex system topology: what it is, how it is use today
and how to describe it tomorrow. The second sections talks about
new API to bind/provide hint to kernel for range of virtual address.
The third section talks about new mechanism to track bind/hint
provided by user space or device driver inside the kernel.
1) Complex system topology and representing them
Inside a node you can have a complex topology of memory, for instance
you can have multiple HBM memory in a node, each HBM memory tie to a
set of CPUs (all of which are in the same node). This means that you
have a hierarchy of memory for CPUs. The local fast HBM but which is
expected to be relatively small compare to main memory and then the
main memory. New memory technology might also deepen this hierarchy
with another level of yet slower memory but gigantic in size (some
persistent memory technology might fall into that category). Another
example is device memory, and device themself can have a hierarchy
like HBM on top of device core and main device memory.
On top of that you can have multiple path to access each memory and
each path can have different properties (latency, bandwidth, ...).
Also there is not always symmetry ie some memory might only be
accessible by some device or CPU ie not accessible by everyone.
So a flat hierarchy for each node is not capable of representing this
kind of complexity. To simplify discussion and because we do not want
to single out CPU from device, from here on out we will use initiator
to refer to either CPU or device. An initiator is any kind of CPU or
device that can access memory (ie initiate memory access).
At this point a example of such system might help:
- 2 nodes and for each node:
- 1 CPU per node with 2 complex of CPUs cores per CPU
- one HBM memory for each complex of CPUs cores (200GB/s)
- CPUs cores complex are linked to each other (100GB/s)
- main memory is (90GB/s)
- 4 GPUs each with:
- HBM memory for each GPU (1000GB/s) (not CPU accessible)
- GDDR memory for each GPU (500GB/s) (CPU accessible)
- connected to CPU root controller (60GB/s)
- connected to other GPUs (even GPUs from the second
node) with GPU link (400GB/s)
In this example we restrict our self to bandwidth and ignore bus width
or latency, this is just to simplify discussions but obviously they
also factor in.
Userspace very much would like to know about this information, for
instance HPC folks have develop complex library to manage this and
there is wide research on the topics    . Today most of
the work is done by hardcoding thing for specific platform. Which is
somewhat acceptable for HPC folks where the platform stays the same
for a long period of time. But if we want a more ubiquituous support
we should aim to provide the information needed through standard
kernel API such as the one presented in this patchset.
Roughly speaking i see two broads use case for topology information.
First is for virtualization and vm where you want to segment your
hardware properly for each vm (binding memory, CPU and GPU that are
all close to each others). Second is for application, many of which
can partition their workload to minimize exchange between partition
allowing each partition to be bind to a subset of device and CPUs
that are close to each others (for maximum locality). Here it is much
more than just NUMA distance, you can leverage the memory hierarchy
and the system topology all-together (see     for more
references and details).
So this is not exposing topology just for the sake of cool graph in
userspace. They are active user today of such information and if we
want to growth and broaden the usage we should provide a unified API
to standardize how that information is accessible to every one.
One proposal so far to handle new type of memory is to user CPU less
node for those . While same idea can apply for device memory, it is
still hard to describe multiple path with different property in such
scheme. While it is backward compatible and have minimum changes, it
simplify can not convey complex topology (think any kind of random
graph, not just a tree like graph).
Thus far this kind of system have been use through device specific API
and rely on all kind of system specific quirks. To avoid this going out
of hands and grow into a bigger mess than it already is, this patchset
tries to provide a common generic API that should fit various devices
(GPU, FPGA, ...).
So this patchset propose a new way to expose to userspace the system
topology. It relies on 4 types of objects:
- target: any kind of memory (main memory, HBM, device, ...)
- initiator: CPU or device (anything that can access memory)
- link: anything that link initiator and target
- bridges: anything that allow group of initiator to access
remote target (ie target they are not connected with directly
through an link)
Properties like bandwidth, latency, ... are all sets per bridges and
links. All initiators connected to an link can access any target memory
also connected to the same link and all with the same link properties.
Link do not need to match physical hardware ie you can have a single
physical link match a single or multiples software expose link. This
allows to model device connected to same physical link (like PCIE
for instance) but not with same characteristics (like number of lane
or lane speed in PCIE). The reverse is also true ie having a single
software expose link match multiples physical link.
Bridges allows initiator to access remote link. A bridges connect two
links to each others and is also specific to list of initiators (ie
not all initiators connected to each of the link can use the bridge).
Bridges have their own properties (bandwidth, latency, ...) so that
the actual property value for each property is the lowest common
denominator between bridge and each of the links.
This model allows to describe any kind of directed graph and thus
allows to describe any kind of topology we might see in the future.
It is also easier to add new properties to each object type.
Moreover it can be use to expose devices capable to do peer to peer
between them. For that simply have all devices capable to peer to
peer to have a common link or use the bridge object if the peer to
peer capabilities is only one way for instance.
This patchset use the above scheme to expose system topology through
sysfs under /sys/bus/hms/ with:
- /sys/bus/hms/devices/v%version-%id-target/ : a target memory,
each has a UID and you can usual value in that folder (node id,
- /sys/bus/hms/devices/v%version-%id-initiator/ : an initiator
(CPU or device), each has a HMS UID but also a CPU id for CPU
(which match CPU id in (/sys/bus/cpu/). For device you have a
path that can be PCIE BUS ID for instance)
- /sys/bus/hms/devices/v%version-%id-link : an link, each has a
UID and a file per property (bandwidth, latency, ...) you also
find a symlink to every target and initiator connected to that
- /sys/bus/hms/devices/v%version-%id-bridge : a bridge, each has
a UID and a file per property (bandwidth, latency, ...) you
also find a symlink to all initiators that can use that bridge.
To help with forward compatibility each object as a version value and
it is mandatory for user space to only use target or initiator with
version supported by the user space. For instance if user space only
knows about what version 1 means and sees a target with version 2 then
the user space must ignore that target as if it does not exist.
Mandating that allows the additions of new properties that break back-
ward compatibility ie user space must know how this new property affect
the object to be able to use it safely.
This patchset expose main memory of each node under a common target.
For now device driver are responsible to register memory they want to
expose through that scheme but in the future that information might
come from the system firmware (this is a different discussion).
2) hbind() bind range of virtual address to heterogeneous memory
With this new topology description the mbind() API is too limited to
handle which memory to picks. This is why this patchset introduce a new
API: hbind() for heterogeneous bind. The hbind() API allows to bind any
kind of target memory (using the HMS target uid), this can be any memory
expose through HMS ie main memory, HBM, device memory ...
So instead of using a bitmap, hbind() take an array of uid and each uid
is a unique memory target inside the new memory topology description.
User space also provide an array of modifiers. This patchset only define
some modifier. Modifier can be seen as the flags parameter of mbind()
but here we use an array so that user space can not only supply a modifier
but also value with it. This should allow the API to grow more features
in the future. Kernel should return -EINVAL if it is provided with an
unkown modifier and just ignore the call all together, forcing the user
space to restrict itself to modifier supported by the kernel it is
running on (i know i am dreaming about well behave user space).
Note that none of this is exclusive of automatic memory placement like
autonuma. I also believe that we will see something similar to autonuma
for device memory. This patchset is just there to provide new API for
process that wish to have a fine control over their memory placement
because process should know better than the kernel on where to place
This patchset also add necessary bits to the nouveau open source driver
for it to expose its memory and to allow process to bind some range to
the GPU memory. Note that on x86 the GPU memory is not accessible by
CPU because PCIE does not allow cache coherent access to device memory.
Thus when using PCIE device memory on x86 it is mapped as swap out from
CPU POV and any CPU access will triger a migration back to main memory
(this is all part of HMM and nouveau not in this patchset).
This is all done under staging so that we can experiment with the user-
space API for a while before committing to anything. Getting this right
is hard and it might not happen on the first try so instead of having to
support forever an API i would rather have it leave behind staging for
people to experiment with and once we feel confident we have something
we can live with then convert it to a syscall.
3) Tracking and applying heterogeneous memory policies
Current memory policy infrastructure is node oriented, instead of
changing that and risking breakage and regression this patchset add a
new heterogeneous policy tracking infra-structure. The expectation is
that existing application can keep using mbind() and all existing
infrastructure under-disturb and unaffected, while new application
will use the new API and should avoid mix and matching both (as they
can achieve the same thing with the new API).
Also the policy is not directly tie to the vma structure for a few
- avoid having to split vma for policy that do not cover full vma
- avoid changing too much vma code
- avoid growing the vma structure with an extra pointer
So instead this patchset use the mmu_notifier API to track vma liveness
This patchset is not tie to process memory allocation either (like said
at the begining this is not and end to end patchset but a starting
point). It does however demonstrate how migration to device memory can
work under this scheme (using nouveau as a demonstration vehicle).
The overall design is simple, on hbind() call a hms policy structure
is created for the supplied range and hms use the callback associated
with the target memory. This callback is provided by device driver
for device memory or by core HMS for regular main memory. The callback
can decide to migrate the range to the target memories or do nothing
(this can be influenced by flags provided to hbind() too).
Latter patches can tie page fault with HMS policy to direct memory
allocation to the right target. For now i would rather postpone that
discussion until a consensus is reach on how to move forward on all
the topics presented in this email. Start smalls, grow big ;)
Cc: Rafael J. Wysocki <rafael@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Matthew Wilcox <willy@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Ross Zwisler <ross.zwisler@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Keith Busch <keith.busch@xxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@xxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@xxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Haggai Eran <haggaie@xxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Balbir Singh <bsingharora@xxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Felix Kuehling <felix.kuehling@xxxxxxx>
Cc: Philip Yang <Philip.Yang@xxxxxxx>
Cc: Christian KÃnig <christian.koenig@xxxxxxx>
Cc: Paul Blinzer <Paul.Blinzer@xxxxxxx>
Cc: Logan Gunthorpe <logang@xxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: John Hubbard <jhubbard@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Ralph Campbell <rcampbell@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Jonathan Cameron <jonathan.cameron@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Mark Hairgrove <mhairgrove@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Vivek Kini <vkini@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Dave Airlie <airlied@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Ben Skeggs <bskeggs@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Ben Woodard <woodard@xxxxxxxxxx>
JÃrÃme Glisse (14):
mm/hms: heterogeneous memory system (sysfs infrastructure)
mm/hms: heterogenenous memory system (HMS) documentation
mm/hms: add target memory to heterogeneous memory system
mm/hms: add initiator to heterogeneous memory system infrastructure
mm/hms: add link to heterogeneous memory system infrastructure
mm/hms: add bridge to heterogeneous memory system infrastructure
mm/hms: register main memory with heterogenenous memory system
mm/hms: register main CPUs with heterogenenous memory system
mm/hms: hbind() for heterogeneous memory system (aka mbind() for HMS)
mm/hbind: add heterogeneous memory policy tracking infrastructure
mm/hbind: add bind command to heterogeneous memory policy
mm/hbind: add migrate command to hbind() ioctl
drm/nouveau: register GPU under heterogeneous memory system
test/hms: tests for heterogeneous memory system
Documentation/vm/hms.rst | 252 ++++++++
drivers/base/Kconfig | 14 +
drivers/base/Makefile | 1 +
drivers/base/cpu.c | 5 +
drivers/base/hms-bridge.c | 197 +++++++
drivers/base/hms-initiator.c | 141 +++++
drivers/base/hms-link.c | 183 ++++++
drivers/base/hms-target.c | 193 +++++++
drivers/base/hms.c | 199 +++++++
drivers/base/init.c | 2 +
drivers/base/node.c | 83 ++-
drivers/gpu/drm/nouveau/Kbuild | 1 +
drivers/gpu/drm/nouveau/nouveau_hms.c | 80 +++
drivers/gpu/drm/nouveau/nouveau_hms.h | 46 ++
drivers/gpu/drm/nouveau/nouveau_svm.c | 6 +
include/linux/cpu.h | 4 +
include/linux/hms.h | 219 +++++++
include/linux/mm_types.h | 6 +
include/linux/node.h | 6 +
include/uapi/linux/hbind.h | 73 +++
kernel/fork.c | 3 +
mm/Makefile | 1 +
mm/hms.c | 545 ++++++++++++++++++
tools/testing/hms/Makefile | 17 +
tools/testing/hms/hbind-create-device-file.sh | 11 +
tools/testing/hms/test-hms-migrate.c | 77 +++
tools/testing/hms/test-hms.c | 237 ++++++++
tools/testing/hms/test-hms.h | 67 +++
28 files changed, 2667 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/hms.rst
create mode 100644 drivers/base/hms-bridge.c
create mode 100644 drivers/base/hms-initiator.c
create mode 100644 drivers/base/hms-link.c
create mode 100644 drivers/base/hms-target.c
create mode 100644 drivers/base/hms.c
create mode 100644 drivers/gpu/drm/nouveau/nouveau_hms.c
create mode 100644 drivers/gpu/drm/nouveau/nouveau_hms.h
create mode 100644 include/linux/hms.h
create mode 100644 include/uapi/linux/hbind.h
create mode 100644 mm/hms.c
create mode 100644 tools/testing/hms/Makefile
create mode 100755 tools/testing/hms/hbind-create-device-file.sh
create mode 100644 tools/testing/hms/test-hms-migrate.c
create mode 100644 tools/testing/hms/test-hms.c
create mode 100644 tools/testing/hms/test-hms.h