[PATCH v19,RESEND 25/27] x86/sgx: SGX documentation
From: Jarkko Sakkinen
Date: Wed Mar 20 2019 - 12:26:29 EST
Documentation of the features of the Software Guard eXtensions (SGX),
the basic design choices for the core and driver functionality and
Signed-off-by: Jarkko Sakkinen <jarkko.sakkinen@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Co-developed-by: Sean Christopherson <sean.j.christopherson@xxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Sean Christopherson <sean.j.christopherson@xxxxxxxxx>
Documentation/index.rst | 1 +
Documentation/x86/index.rst | 10 ++
Documentation/x86/sgx.rst | 234 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
3 files changed, 245 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/x86/index.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/x86/sgx.rst
diff --git a/Documentation/index.rst b/Documentation/index.rst
index 80a421cb935e..3511400dc092 100644
@@ -102,6 +102,7 @@ implementation.
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/index.rst b/Documentation/x86/index.rst
new file mode 100644
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+x86 Architecture Guide
+ :maxdepth: 2
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/sgx.rst b/Documentation/x86/sgx.rst
new file mode 100644
@@ -0,0 +1,234 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+Intel(R) Software Guard eXtensions
+Intel(R) SGX is a set of CPU instructions that can be used by applications to
+set aside private regions of code and data. The code outside the enclave is
+disallowed to access the memory inside the enclave by the CPU access control.
+In a way you can think that SGX provides an inverted sandbox. It protects the
+application from a malicious host.
+You can tell if your CPU supports SGX by looking into ``/proc/cpuinfo``:
+ ``cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep sgx``
+Overview of SGX
+SGX has a set of data structures to maintain information about the enclaves and
+their security properties. BIOS reserves a fixed size region of physical memory
+for these structures by setting Processor Reserved Memory Range Registers
+This memory range is protected from outside access by the CPU and all the data
+coming in and out of the CPU package is encrypted by a key that is generated for
+each boot cycle.
+Enclaves execute in ring 3 in a special enclave submode using pages from the
+reserved memory range. A fixed logical address range for the enclave is reserved
+by ENCLS(ECREATE), a leaf instruction used to create enclaves. It is referred to
+in the documentation commonly as the *ELRANGE*.
+Every memory access to the ELRANGE is asserted by the CPU. If the CPU is not
+executing in the enclave mode inside the enclave, #GP is raised. On the other
+hand, enclave code can make memory accesses both inside and outside of the
+An enclave can only execute code inside the ELRANGE. Instructions that may cause
+VMEXIT, IO instructions and instructions that require a privilege change are
+prohibited inside the enclave. Interrupts and exceptions always cause an enclave
+to exit and jump to an address outside the enclave given when the enclave is
+entered by using the leaf instruction ENCLS(EENTER).
+Enclave Page Cache (EPC)
+ Physical pages used with enclaves that are protected by the CPU from
+ unauthorized access.
+Enclave Page Cache Map (EPCM)
+ A database that describes the properties and state of the pages e.g. their
+ permissions or which enclave they belong to.
+Memory Encryption Engine (MEE) integrity tree
+ Autonomously updated integrity tree. The root of the tree located in on-die
+EPC data types
+SGX Enclave Control Structure (SECS)
+ Describes the global properties of an enclave. Will not be mapped to the
+ These pages contain code and data.
+Thread Control Structure (TCS)
+ The pages that define the entry points inside an enclave. An enclave can
+ only be entered through these entry points and each can host a single
+ hardware thread at a time.
+Version Array (VA)
+ The pages contain 64-bit version numbers for pages that have been swapped
+ outside the enclave. Each page has the capacity of 512 version numbers.
+To launch an enclave, two structures must be provided for ENCLS(EINIT):
+1. **SIGSTRUCT:** signed measurement of the enclave binary.
+2. **EINITTOKEN:** a cryptographic token CMAC-signed with a AES256-key called
+ *launch key*, which is regenerated for each boot cycle.
+The CPU holds a SHA256 hash of a 3072-bit RSA public key inside
+IA32_SGXLEPUBKEYHASHn MSRs. Enclaves with a SIGSTRUCT that is signed with this
+key do not require a valid EINITTOKEN and can be authorized with special
+privileges. One of those privileges is ability to acquire the launch key with
+**IA32_FEATURE_CONTROL[SGX_LE_WR]** is used by the BIOS configure whether
+IA32_SGXLEPUBKEYHASH MSRs are read-only or read-write before locking the feature
+control register and handing over control to the operating system.
+The construction is started by filling out the SECS that contains enclave
+address range, privileged attributes and measurement of TCS and REG pages (pages
+that will be mapped to the address range) among the other things. This structure
+is passed to the ENCLS(ECREATE) together with a physical address of a page in
+EPC that will hold the SECS.
+The pages are added with ENCLS(EADD) and measured with ENCLS(EEXTEND), i.e.
+SHA256 hash MRENCLAVE residing in the SECS is extended with the page data.
+After all of the pages have been added, the enclave is initialized with
+ENCLS(EINIT). It will check that the SIGSTRUCT is signed with the contained
+public key. If the given EINITTOKEN has the valid bit set, the CPU checks that
+the token is valid (CMAC'd with the launch key). If the token is not valid,
+the CPU will check whether the enclave is signed with a key matching to the
+Enclave pages can be swapped out with the *ENCLS(EWB)* instruction to the
+unprotected memory. In addition to the EPC page, ENCLS(EWB) takes in a VA page
+and address for PCMD structure (Page Crypto MetaData) as input. The VA page will
+seal a version number for the page. PCMD is 128-byte structure that contains
+tracking information for the page, most importantly its MAC. With these
+structures the enclave is sealed and rollback protected while it resides in the
+Before the page can be swapped out it must not have any active TLB references.
+The *ENCLS(EBLOCK)* instruction moves a page to the *blocked* state, which means
+that no new TLB entries can be created to it by the hardware threads.
+After this a shootdown sequence is started with the *ENCLS(ETRACK)* instruction,
+which sets an increased counter value to the entering hardware threads.
+ENCLS(EWB) will return *SGX_NOT_TRACKED* error while there are still threads
+with the earlier counter value because that means that there might be hardware
+threads inside the enclave with TLB entries to pages that are to be swapped.
+Because SGX has an ever evolving and expanding feature set, it's possible for
+a BIOS or VMM to configure a system in such a way that not all CPUs are equal,
+e.g. where Launch Control is only enabled on a subset of CPUs. Linux does
+*not* support such a heterogeneous system configuration, nor does it even
+attempt to play nice in the face of a misconfigured system. With the exception
+of Launch Control's hash MSRs, which can vary per CPU, Linux assumes that all
+CPUs have a configuration that is identical to the boot CPU.
+Roles and responsibilities
+SGX introduces system resources, e.g. EPC memory, that must be accessible to
+multiple entities, e.g. the native kernel driver (to expose SGX to userspace)
+and KVM (to expose SGX to VMs), ideally without introducing any dependencies
+between each SGX entity. To that end, the kernel owns and manages the shared
+system resources, i.e. the EPC and Launch Control MSRs, and defines functions
+that provide appropriate access to the shared resources. SGX support for
+user space and VMs is left to the SGX platform driver and KVM respectively.
+The current kernel implementation supports only writable MSRs. The launch is
+performed by setting the MSRs to the hash of the public key modulus of the
+enclave signer and a token with the valid bit set to zero.
+Due to the unique requirements for swapping EPC pages, and because EPC pages
+(currently) do not have associated page structures, management of the EPC is
+not handled by the standard Linux swapper. SGX directly handles swapping
+of EPC pages, including a kthread to initiate reclaim and a rudimentary LRU
+mechanism. The consumers of EPC pages, e.g. the SGX driver, are required to
+implement function callbacks that can be invoked by the kernel to age,
+swap, and/or forcefully reclaim a target EPC page. In effect, the kernel
+controls what happens and when, while the consumers (driver, KVM, etc..) do
+the actual work.
+The PF_SGX bit is set if and only if the #PF is detected by the SGX Enclave Page
+Cache Map (EPCM). The EPCM is a hardware-managed table that enforces accesses to
+an enclave's EPC pages in addition to the software-managed kernel page tables,
+i.e. the effective permissions for an EPC page are a logical AND of the kernel's
+page tables and the corresponding EPCM entry.
+The EPCM is consulted only after an access walks the kernel's page tables, i.e.:
+1. the access was allowed by the kernel
+2. the kernel's tables have become less restrictive than the EPCM
+3. the kernel cannot fixup the cause of the fault
+Notably, (2) implies that either the kernel has botched the EPC mappings or the
+EPCM has been invalidated (see below). Regardless of why the fault occurred,
+userspace needs to be alerted so that it can take appropriate action, e.g.
+restart the enclave. This is reinforced by (3) as the kernel doesn't really
+have any other reasonable option, i.e. signalling SIGSEGV is actually the least
+severe action possible.
+Although the primary purpose of the EPCM is to prevent a malicious or
+compromised kernel from attacking an enclave, e.g. by modifying the enclave's
+page tables, do not WARN on a #PF with PF_SGX set. The SGX architecture
+effectively allows the CPU to invalidate all EPCM entries at will and requires
+that software be prepared to handle an EPCM fault at any time. The architecture
+defines this behavior because the EPCM is encrypted with an ephemeral key that
+isn't exposed to software. As such, the EPCM entries cannot be preserved across
+transitions that result in a new key being used, e.g. CPU power down as part of
+an S3 transition or when a VM is live migrated to a new physical system.
+.. kernel-doc:: drivers/platform/x86/intel_sgx/sgx_ioctl.c
+ :functions: sgx_ioc_enclave_create
+.. kernel-doc:: arch/x86/include/uapi/asm/sgx.h
+* A Memory Encryption Engine Suitable for General Purpose Processors
+* System Programming Manual: 39.1.4 Intel® SGX Launch Control Configuration