[PATCH 4.4 239/266] x86/speculation/mds: Add mitigation mode VMWERV

From: Greg Kroah-Hartman
Date: Wed May 15 2019 - 08:05:48 EST

From: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>

commit 22dd8365088b6403630b82423cf906491859b65e upstream.

In virtualized environments it can happen that the host has the microcode
update which utilizes the VERW instruction to clear CPU buffers, but the
hypervisor is not yet updated to expose the X86_FEATURE_MD_CLEAR CPUID bit
to guests.

Introduce an internal mitigation mode VMWERV which enables the invocation
of the CPU buffer clearing even if X86_FEATURE_MD_CLEAR is not set. If the
system has no updated microcode this results in a pointless execution of
the VERW instruction wasting a few CPU cycles. If the microcode is updated,
but not exposed to a guest then the CPU buffers will be cleared.

That said: Virtual Machines Will Eventually Receive Vaccine

Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Reviewed-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@xxxxxxx>
Reviewed-by: Jon Masters <jcm@xxxxxxxxxx>
Tested-by: Jon Masters <jcm@xxxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Ben Hutchings <ben@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Documentation/x86/mds.rst | 27 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h | 1 +
arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c | 18 ++++++++++++------
3 files changed, 40 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

--- a/Documentation/x86/mds.rst
+++ b/Documentation/x86/mds.rst
@@ -93,11 +93,38 @@ The kernel provides a function to invoke
The mitigation is invoked on kernel/userspace, hypervisor/guest and C-state
(idle) transitions.

+As a special quirk to address virtualization scenarios where the host has
+the microcode updated, but the hypervisor does not (yet) expose the
+MD_CLEAR CPUID bit to guests, the kernel issues the VERW instruction in the
+hope that it might actually clear the buffers. The state is reflected
According to current knowledge additional mitigations inside the kernel
itself are not required because the necessary gadgets to expose the leaked
data cannot be controlled in a way which allows exploitation from malicious
user space or VM guests.

+Kernel internal mitigation modes
+ ======= ============================================================
+ off Mitigation is disabled. Either the CPU is not affected or
+ mds=off is supplied on the kernel command line
+ full Mitigation is eanbled. CPU is affected and MD_CLEAR is
+ advertised in CPUID.
+ vmwerv Mitigation is enabled. CPU is affected and MD_CLEAR is not
+ advertised in CPUID. That is mainly for virtualization
+ scenarios where the host has the updated microcode but the
+ hypervisor does not expose MD_CLEAR in CPUID. It's a best
+ effort approach without guarantee.
+ ======= ============================================================
+If the CPU is affected and mds=off is not supplied on the kernel command
+line then the kernel selects the appropriate mitigation mode depending on
+the availability of the MD_CLEAR CPUID bit.
Mitigation points

--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
@@ -849,6 +849,7 @@ void df_debug(struct pt_regs *regs, long
enum mds_mitigations {

#endif /* _ASM_X86_PROCESSOR_H */
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c
@@ -213,7 +213,8 @@ static enum mds_mitigations mds_mitigati

static const char * const mds_strings[] = {
[MDS_MITIGATION_OFF] = "Vulnerable",
- [MDS_MITIGATION_FULL] = "Mitigation: Clear CPU buffers"
+ [MDS_MITIGATION_FULL] = "Mitigation: Clear CPU buffers",
+ [MDS_MITIGATION_VMWERV] = "Vulnerable: Clear CPU buffers attempted, no microcode",

static void __init mds_select_mitigation(void)
@@ -224,10 +225,9 @@ static void __init mds_select_mitigation

if (mds_mitigation == MDS_MITIGATION_FULL) {
- if (boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_MD_CLEAR))
- static_branch_enable(&mds_user_clear);
- else
- mds_mitigation = MDS_MITIGATION_OFF;
+ if (!boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_MD_CLEAR))
+ mds_mitigation = MDS_MITIGATION_VMWERV;
+ static_branch_enable(&mds_user_clear);
pr_info("%s\n", mds_strings[mds_mitigation]);
@@ -687,8 +687,14 @@ void arch_smt_update(void)

- if (mds_mitigation == MDS_MITIGATION_FULL)
+ switch (mds_mitigation) {
+ break;
+ break;
+ }