[PATCH v3] PCI: Disallow retraining link for Atheros chips on non-Gen1 PCIe bridges

From: Pali Rohár
Date: Wed May 05 2021 - 12:50:24 EST

Atheros AR9xxx and QCA9xxx chips have behaviour issues not only after a
bus reset, but also after doing retrain link, if PCIe bridge is not in
GEN1 mode (at 2.5 GT/s speed):

- QCA9880 and QCA9890 chips throw a Link Down event and completely
disappear from the bus and their config space is not accessible

- QCA9377 chip throws a Link Down event followed by Link Up event, the
config space is accessible and PCI device ID is correct. But trying to
access chip's I/O space causes Uncorrected (Non-Fatal) AER error,
followed by Synchronous external abort 96000210 and Segmentation fault
of insmod while loading ath10k_pci.ko module.

- AR9390 chip throws a Link Down event followed by Link Up event, config
space is accessible, but contains nonsense values. PCI device ID is
0xABCD which indicates HW bug that chip itself was not able to read
values from internal EEPROM/OTP.

- AR9287 chip throws also Link Down and Link Up events, also has
accessible config space containing correct values. But ath9k driver
fails to initialize card from this state as it is unable to access HW
registers. This also indicates that the chip iself is not able to read
values from internal EEPROM/OTP.

These issues related to PCI device ID 0xABCD and to reading internal
EEPROM/OTP were previously discussed at ath9k-devel mailing list in
following thread:


After experiments we've come up with a solution: it seems that Retrain
link can be called only when using GEN1 PCIe bridge or when PCIe bridge
link speed is forced to 2.5 GT/s. Applying this workaround fixes all
mentioned cards.

This issue was reproduced with more cards:
- Compex WLE900VX (QCA9880 based / device ID 0x003c)
- QCNFA435 (QCA9377 based / device ID 0x0042)
- Compex WLE200NX (AR9287 based / device ID 0x002e)
- "noname" card (QCA9890 based / device ID 0x003c)
- Wistron NKR-DNXAH1 (AR9390 based / device ID 0x0030)
on Armada 385 with pci-mvebu.c driver and also on Armada 3720 with
pci-aardvark.c driver.

To workaround this issue, this change introduces a new PCI quirk called
PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_RETRAIN_LINK_WHEN_NOT_GEN1, which is enabled for all
Atheros chips with PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_BUS_RESET quirk, and also for Atheros
chip AR9287.

When this quirk is set, kernel disallows triggering PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL
bit in config space of PCIe Bridge in the case when PCIe Bridge is
capable of higher speed than 2.5 GT/s and this higher speed is already
allowed. When PCIe Bridge has accessible LNKCTL2 register, we try to
force target link speed to 2.5 GT/s. After this change it is possible
to trigger PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit without issues.

Currently only PCIe ASPM kernel code triggers this PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit,
so quirk check is added only into pcie/aspm.c file.

Signed-off-by: Pali Rohár <pali@xxxxxxxxxx>
Reported-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@xxxxxxxxxx>
Tested-by: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <toke@xxxxxxxxxx>
Tested-by: Marek Behún <kabel@xxxxxxxxxx>
BugLink: https://lore.kernel.org/linux-pci/87h7l8axqp.fsf@xxxxxxx/
BugLink: https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=84821
BugLink: https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=192441
BugLink: https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=209833
Cc: stable@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx # c80851f6ce63a ("PCI: Add PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS* macros")

Changes since v1:
* Move whole quirk code into pcie_downgrade_link_to_gen1() function
* Reformat to 80 chars per line where possible
* Add quirk also for cards with AR9287 chip (PCI ID 0x002e)
* Extend commit message description and add information about 0xABCD

Changes since v2:
* Add quirk also for Atheros QCA9377 chip
drivers/pci/pcie/aspm.c | 44 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
drivers/pci/quirks.c | 39 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------
include/linux/pci.h | 2 ++
3 files changed, 77 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/pci/pcie/aspm.c b/drivers/pci/pcie/aspm.c
index ac0557a305af..729b0389562b 100644
--- a/drivers/pci/pcie/aspm.c
+++ b/drivers/pci/pcie/aspm.c
@@ -192,12 +192,56 @@ static void pcie_clkpm_cap_init(struct pcie_link_state *link, int blacklist)
link->clkpm_disable = blacklist ? 1 : 0;

+static int pcie_downgrade_link_to_gen1(struct pci_dev *parent)
+ u16 reg16;
+ u32 reg32;
+ int ret;
+ /* Check if link is capable of higher speed than 2.5 GT/s */
+ pcie_capability_read_dword(parent, PCI_EXP_LNKCAP, &reg32);
+ return 0;
+ /* Check if link speed can be downgraded to 2.5 GT/s */
+ pcie_capability_read_dword(parent, PCI_EXP_LNKCAP2, &reg32);
+ if (!(reg32 & PCI_EXP_LNKCAP2_SLS_2_5GB)) {
+ pci_err(parent, "ASPM: Bridge does not support changing Link Speed to 2.5 GT/s\n");
+ return -EOPNOTSUPP;
+ }
+ /* Force link speed to 2.5 GT/s */
+ ret = pcie_capability_clear_and_set_word(parent, PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2,
+ if (!ret) {
+ /* Verify that new value was really set */
+ pcie_capability_read_word(parent, PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2, &reg16);
+ if ((reg16 & PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS) != PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS_2_5GT)
+ ret = -EINVAL;
+ }
+ if (ret) {
+ pci_err(parent, "ASPM: Changing Target Link Speed to 2.5 GT/s failed: %d\n", ret);
+ return ret;
+ }
+ pci_info(parent, "ASPM: Target Link Speed changed to 2.5 GT/s due to quirk\n");
+ return 0;
static bool pcie_retrain_link(struct pcie_link_state *link)
struct pci_dev *parent = link->pdev;
unsigned long end_jiffies;
u16 reg16;

+ if ((link->downstream->dev_flags & PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_RETRAIN_LINK_WHEN_NOT_GEN1) &&
+ pcie_downgrade_link_to_gen1(parent)) {
+ pci_err(parent, "ASPM: Retrain Link at higher speed is disallowed by quirk\n");
+ return false;
+ }
pcie_capability_read_word(parent, PCI_EXP_LNKCTL, &reg16);
pcie_capability_write_word(parent, PCI_EXP_LNKCTL, reg16);
diff --git a/drivers/pci/quirks.c b/drivers/pci/quirks.c
index 653660e3ba9e..4999ad9d08b8 100644
--- a/drivers/pci/quirks.c
+++ b/drivers/pci/quirks.c
@@ -3553,23 +3553,46 @@ static void mellanox_check_broken_intx_masking(struct pci_dev *pdev)

-static void quirk_no_bus_reset(struct pci_dev *dev)
+static void quirk_no_bus_reset_and_no_retrain_link(struct pci_dev *dev)
- dev->dev_flags |= PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_BUS_RESET;
+ dev->dev_flags |= PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_BUS_RESET |

- * Some Atheros AR9xxx and QCA988x chips do not behave after a bus reset.
+ * Atheros AR9xxx and QCA9xxx chips do not behave after a bus reset and also
+ * after retrain link when PCIe bridge is not in GEN1 mode at 2.5 GT/s speed.
* The device will throw a Link Down error on AER-capable systems and
* regardless of AER, config space of the device is never accessible again
* and typically causes the system to hang or reset when access is attempted.
+ * Or if config space is accessible again then it contains only dummy values
+ * like fixed PCI device ID 0xABCD or values not initialized at all.
+ * Retrain link can be called only when using GEN1 PCIe bridge or when
+ * PCIe bridge has forced link speed to 2.5 GT/s via PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2 register.
+ * To reset these cards it is required to do PCIe Warm Reset via PERST# pin.
* https://lore.kernel.org/r/20140923210318.498dacbd@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx/
+ * https://lore.kernel.org/r/87h7l8axqp.fsf@xxxxxxx/
+ * https://www.mail-archive.com/ath9k-devel@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx/msg07529.html
+ quirk_no_bus_reset_and_no_retrain_link);
+ quirk_no_bus_reset_and_no_retrain_link);
+ quirk_no_bus_reset_and_no_retrain_link);
+ quirk_no_bus_reset_and_no_retrain_link);
+ quirk_no_bus_reset_and_no_retrain_link);
+ quirk_no_bus_reset_and_no_retrain_link);
+ quirk_no_bus_reset_and_no_retrain_link);
+static void quirk_no_bus_reset(struct pci_dev *dev)
+ dev->dev_flags |= PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_BUS_RESET;

* Root port on some Cavium CN8xxx chips do not successfully complete a bus
diff --git a/include/linux/pci.h b/include/linux/pci.h
index 86c799c97b77..fdbf7254e4ab 100644
--- a/include/linux/pci.h
+++ b/include/linux/pci.h
@@ -227,6 +227,8 @@ enum pci_dev_flags {
PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_FLR_RESET = (__force pci_dev_flags_t) (1 << 10),
/* Don't use Relaxed Ordering for TLPs directed at this device */
PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_RELAXED_ORDERING = (__force pci_dev_flags_t) (1 << 11),
+ /* Don't Retrain Link for device when bridge is not in GEN1 mode */
+ PCI_DEV_FLAGS_NO_RETRAIN_LINK_WHEN_NOT_GEN1 = (__force pci_dev_flags_t) (1 << 12),

enum pci_irq_reroute_variant {