[PATCH AUTOSEL 5.15 06/65] PCI: aardvark: Fix link training

From: Sasha Levin
Date: Tue Nov 16 2021 - 14:18:23 EST

From: Pali Rohár <pali@xxxxxxxxxx>

[ Upstream commit f76b36d40beee0a13aa8f6aa011df0d7cbbb8a7f ]

Fix multiple link training issues in aardvark driver. The main reason of
these issues was misunderstanding of what certain registers do, since their
names and comments were misleading: before commit 96be36dbffac ("PCI:
aardvark: Replace custom macros by standard linux/pci_regs.h macros"), the
pci-aardvark.c driver used custom macros for accessing standard PCIe Root
Bridge registers, and misleading comments did not help to understand what
the code was really doing.

After doing more tests and experiments I've come to the conclusion that the
SPEED_GEN register in aardvark sets the PCIe revision / generation
compliance and forces maximal link speed. Both GEN3 and GEN2 values set the
read-only PCI_EXP_FLAGS_VERS bits (PCIe capabilities version of Root
Bridge) to value 2, while GEN1 value sets PCI_EXP_FLAGS_VERS to 1, which
matches with PCI Express specifications revisions 3, 2 and 1 respectively.
Changing SPEED_GEN also sets the read-only bits PCI_EXP_LNKCAP_SLS and
PCI_EXP_LNKCAP2_SLS to corresponding speed.

(Note that PCI Express rev 1 specification does not define PCI_EXP_LNKCAP2
and PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2 registers and when SPEED_GEN is set to GEN1 (which
also sets PCI_EXP_FLAGS_VERS set to 1), lspci cannot access

Changing PCIe link speed can be done via PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS bits of
PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2 register. Armada 3700 Functional Specifications says that
the default value of PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS is based on SPEED_GEN value, but
tests showed that the default value is always 8.0 GT/s, independently of
speed set by SPEED_GEN. So after setting SPEED_GEN, we must also set value
in PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2 register via PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS bits.

Triggering PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit immediately after setting LINK_TRAINING_EN
bit actually doesn't do anything. Tests have shown that a delay is needed
after enabling LINK_TRAINING_EN bit. As triggering PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL
currently does nothing, remove it.

Commit 43fc679ced18 ("PCI: aardvark: Improve link training") introduced
code which sets SPEED_GEN register based on negotiated link speed from
PCI_EXP_LNKSTA_CLS bits of PCI_EXP_LNKSTA register. This code was added to
fix detection of Compex WLE900VX (Atheros QCA9880) WiFi GEN1 PCIe cards, as
otherwise these cards were "invisible" on PCIe bus (probably because they
crashed). But apparently more people reported the same issues with these
cards also with other PCIe controllers [1] and I was able to reproduce this
issue also with other "noname" WiFi cards based on Atheros QCA9890 chip
(with the same PCI vendor/device ids as Atheros QCA9880). So this is not an
issue in aardvark but rather an issue in Atheros QCA98xx chips. Also, this
issue only exists if the kernel is compiled with PCIe ASPM support, and a
generic workaround for this is to change PCIe Bridge to 2.5 GT/s link speed
via PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS_2_5GT bits in PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2 register [2], before
triggering PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit. This workaround also works when SPEED_GEN
is set to value GEN2 (5 GT/s). So remove this hack completely in the
aardvark driver and always set SPEED_GEN to value from 'max-link-speed' DT
property. Fix for Atheros QCA98xx chips is handled separately by patch [2].

These two things (code for triggering PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit and changing
SPEED_GEN value) also explain why commit 6964494582f5 ("PCI: aardvark:
Train link immediately after enabling training") somehow fixed detection of
those problematic Compex cards with Atheros chips: if triggering link
retraining (via PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit) was done immediately after enabling
link training (via LINK_TRAINING_EN), it did nothing. If there was a
specific delay, aardvark HW already initialized PCIe link and therefore
triggering link retraining caused the above issue. Compex cards triggered
link down event and disappeared from the PCIe bus.

Commit f4c7d053d7f7 ("PCI: aardvark: Wait for endpoint to be ready before
training link") added 100ms sleep before calling 'Start link training'
command and explained that it is a requirement of PCI Express
specification. But the code after this 100ms sleep was not doing 'Start
link training', rather it triggered PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit via PCIe Root
Bridge to put link into Recovery state.

The required delay after fundamental reset is already done in function
advk_pcie_wait_for_link() which also checks whether PCIe link is up.
So after removing the code which triggers PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit on PCIe
Root Bridge, there is no need to wait 100ms again. Remove the extra
msleep() call and update comment about the delay required by the PCI
Express specification.

According to Marvell Armada 3700 Functional Specifications, Link training
should be enabled via aardvark register LINK_TRAINING_EN after selecting
PCIe generation and x1 lane. There is no need to disable it prior resetting
card via PERST# signal. This disabling code was introduced in commit
5169a9851daa ("PCI: aardvark: Issue PERST via GPIO") as a workaround for
some Atheros cards. It turns out that this also is Atheros specific issue
and affects any PCIe controller, not only aardvark. Moreover this Atheros
issue was triggered by juggling with PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL, LINK_TRAINING_EN
and SPEED_GEN bits interleaved with sleeps. Now, after removing triggering
PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL, there is no need to explicitly disable LINK_TRAINING_EN
bit. So remove this code too. The problematic Compex cards described in
previous git commits are correctly detected in advk_pcie_train_link()
function even after applying all these changes.

Note that with this patch, and also prior this patch, some NVMe disks which
support PCIe GEN3 with 8 GT/s speed are negotiated only at the lowest link
speed 2.5 GT/s, independently of SPEED_GEN value. After manually triggering
PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit (e.g. from userspace via setpci), these NVMe disks
change link speed to 5 GT/s when SPEED_GEN was configured to GEN2. This
issue first needs to be properly investigated. I will send a fix in the

On the other hand, some other GEN2 PCIe cards with 5 GT/s speed are
autonomously by HW autonegotiated at full 5 GT/s speed without need of any
software interaction.

Armada 3700 Functional Specifications describes the following steps for
link training: set SPEED_GEN to GEN2, enable LINK_TRAINING_EN, poll until
link training is complete, trigger PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL, poll until signal
rate is 5 GT/s, poll until link training is complete, enable ASPM L0s.

The requirement for triggering PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL can be explained by the
need to achieve 5 GT/s speed (as changing link speed is done by throw to
recovery state entered by PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL) or maybe as a part of enabling
ASPM L0s (but in this case ASPM L0s should have been enabled prior

It is unknown why the original pci-aardvark.c driver was triggering
PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL bit before waiting for the link to be up. This does not
align with neither PCIe base specifications nor with Armada 3700 Functional
Specification. (Note that in older versions of aardvark, this bit was
called incorrectly PCIE_CORE_LINK_TRAINING, so this may be the reason.)

It is also unknown why Armada 3700 Functional Specification says that it is
needed to trigger PCI_EXP_LNKCTL_RL for GEN2 mode, as according to PCIe
base specification 5 GT/s speed negotiation is supposed to be entirely
autonomous, even if initial speed is 2.5 GT/s.

[1] - https://lore.kernel.org/linux-pci/87h7l8axqp.fsf@xxxxxxx/
[2] - https://lore.kernel.org/linux-pci/20210326124326.21163-1-pali@xxxxxxxxxx/

Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20211005180952.6812-12-kabel@xxxxxxxxxx
Signed-off-by: Pali Rohár <pali@xxxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Marek Behún <kabel@xxxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Lorenzo Pieralisi <lorenzo.pieralisi@xxxxxxx>
Reviewed-by: Marek Behún <kabel@xxxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Sasha Levin <sashal@xxxxxxxxxx>
drivers/pci/controller/pci-aardvark.c | 117 ++++++++------------------
1 file changed, 34 insertions(+), 83 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/pci/controller/pci-aardvark.c b/drivers/pci/controller/pci-aardvark.c
index 596ebcfcc82dc..c4ce8a6c4168a 100644
--- a/drivers/pci/controller/pci-aardvark.c
+++ b/drivers/pci/controller/pci-aardvark.c
@@ -257,11 +257,6 @@ static inline u32 advk_readl(struct advk_pcie *pcie, u64 reg)
return readl(pcie->base + reg);

-static inline u16 advk_read16(struct advk_pcie *pcie, u64 reg)
- return advk_readl(pcie, (reg & ~0x3)) >> ((reg & 0x3) * 8);
static int advk_pcie_link_up(struct advk_pcie *pcie)
u32 val, ltssm_state;
@@ -299,23 +294,9 @@ static void advk_pcie_wait_for_retrain(struct advk_pcie *pcie)

static void advk_pcie_issue_perst(struct advk_pcie *pcie)
- u32 reg;
if (!pcie->reset_gpio)

- /*
- * As required by PCI Express spec (PCI Express Base Specification, REV.
- * 4.0 PCI Express, February 19 2014, 6.6.1 Conventional Reset) a delay
- * for at least 100ms after de-asserting PERST# signal is needed before
- * link training is enabled. So ensure that link training is disabled
- * prior de-asserting PERST# signal to fulfill that PCI Express spec
- * requirement.
- */
- reg = advk_readl(pcie, PCIE_CORE_CTRL0_REG);
- advk_writel(pcie, reg, PCIE_CORE_CTRL0_REG);
/* 10ms delay is needed for some cards */
dev_info(&pcie->pdev->dev, "issuing PERST via reset GPIO for 10ms\n");
gpiod_set_value_cansleep(pcie->reset_gpio, 1);
@@ -323,53 +304,46 @@ static void advk_pcie_issue_perst(struct advk_pcie *pcie)
gpiod_set_value_cansleep(pcie->reset_gpio, 0);

-static int advk_pcie_train_at_gen(struct advk_pcie *pcie, int gen)
+static void advk_pcie_train_link(struct advk_pcie *pcie)
- int ret, neg_gen;
+ struct device *dev = &pcie->pdev->dev;
u32 reg;
+ int ret;

- /* Setup link speed */
+ /*
+ * Setup PCIe rev / gen compliance based on device tree property
+ * 'max-link-speed' which also forces maximal link speed.
+ */
reg = advk_readl(pcie, PCIE_CORE_CTRL0_REG);
- if (gen == 3)
+ if (pcie->link_gen == 3)
reg |= SPEED_GEN_3;
- else if (gen == 2)
+ else if (pcie->link_gen == 2)
reg |= SPEED_GEN_2;
reg |= SPEED_GEN_1;
advk_writel(pcie, reg, PCIE_CORE_CTRL0_REG);

- * Enable link training. This is not needed in every call to this
- * function, just once suffices, but it does not break anything either.
+ * Set maximal link speed value also into PCIe Link Control 2 register.
+ * Armada 3700 Functional Specification says that default value is based
+ * on SPEED_GEN but tests showed that default value is always 8.0 GT/s.
+ reg = advk_readl(pcie, PCIE_CORE_PCIEXP_CAP + PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2);
+ reg &= ~PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS;
+ if (pcie->link_gen == 3)
+ reg |= PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS_8_0GT;
+ else if (pcie->link_gen == 2)
+ reg |= PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS_5_0GT;
+ else
+ reg |= PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2_TLS_2_5GT;
+ advk_writel(pcie, reg, PCIE_CORE_PCIEXP_CAP + PCI_EXP_LNKCTL2);
+ /* Enable link training after selecting PCIe generation */
reg = advk_readl(pcie, PCIE_CORE_CTRL0_REG);
advk_writel(pcie, reg, PCIE_CORE_CTRL0_REG);

- /*
- * Start link training immediately after enabling it.
- * This solves problems for some buggy cards.
- */
- reg = advk_readl(pcie, PCIE_CORE_PCIEXP_CAP + PCI_EXP_LNKCTL);
- advk_writel(pcie, reg, PCIE_CORE_PCIEXP_CAP + PCI_EXP_LNKCTL);
- ret = advk_pcie_wait_for_link(pcie);
- if (ret)
- return ret;
- reg = advk_read16(pcie, PCIE_CORE_PCIEXP_CAP + PCI_EXP_LNKSTA);
- neg_gen = reg & PCI_EXP_LNKSTA_CLS;
- return neg_gen;
-static void advk_pcie_train_link(struct advk_pcie *pcie)
- struct device *dev = &pcie->pdev->dev;
- int neg_gen = -1, gen;
* Reset PCIe card via PERST# signal. Some cards are not detected
* during link training when they are in some non-initial state.
@@ -380,41 +354,18 @@ static void advk_pcie_train_link(struct advk_pcie *pcie)
* PERST# signal could have been asserted by pinctrl subsystem before
* probe() callback has been called or issued explicitly by reset gpio
* function advk_pcie_issue_perst(), making the endpoint going into
- * fundamental reset. As required by PCI Express spec a delay for at
- * least 100ms after such a reset before link training is needed.
- */
- msleep(PCI_PM_D3COLD_WAIT);
- /*
- * Try link training at link gen specified by device tree property
- * 'max-link-speed'. If this fails, iteratively train at lower gen.
- */
- for (gen = pcie->link_gen; gen > 0; --gen) {
- neg_gen = advk_pcie_train_at_gen(pcie, gen);
- if (neg_gen > 0)
- break;
- }
- if (neg_gen < 0)
- goto err;
- /*
- * After successful training if negotiated gen is lower than requested,
- * train again on negotiated gen. This solves some stability issues for
- * some buggy gen1 cards.
+ * fundamental reset. As required by PCI Express spec (PCI Express
+ * Base Specification, REV. 4.0 PCI Express, February 19 2014, 6.6.1
+ * Conventional Reset) a delay for at least 100ms after such a reset
+ * before sending a Configuration Request to the device is needed.
+ * So wait until PCIe link is up. Function advk_pcie_wait_for_link()
+ * waits for link at least 900ms.
- if (neg_gen < gen) {
- gen = neg_gen;
- neg_gen = advk_pcie_train_at_gen(pcie, gen);
- }
- if (neg_gen == gen) {
- dev_info(dev, "link up at gen %i\n", gen);
- return;
- }
- dev_err(dev, "link never came up\n");
+ ret = advk_pcie_wait_for_link(pcie);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ dev_err(dev, "link never came up\n");
+ else
+ dev_info(dev, "link up\n");