Re: [PATCH v2 1/2] xen/gntdev: Prevent leaking grants

From: M. Vefa Bicakci
Date: Mon Oct 03 2022 - 21:31:43 EST

On 2022-10-02 20:29, Demi Marie Obenour wrote:
On Sun, Oct 02, 2022 at 06:20:05PM -0400, M. Vefa Bicakci wrote:
Prior to this commit, if a grant mapping operation failed partially,
some of the entries in the map_ops array would be invalid, whereas all
of the entries in the kmap_ops array would be valid. This in turn would
cause the following logic in gntdev_map_grant_pages to become invalid:

for (i = 0; i < map->count; i++) {
if (map->map_ops[i].status == GNTST_okay) {
map->unmap_ops[i].handle = map->map_ops[i].handle;
if (!use_ptemod)
if (use_ptemod) {
if (map->kmap_ops[i].status == GNTST_okay) {
if (map->map_ops[i].status == GNTST_okay)
map->kunmap_ops[i].handle = map->kmap_ops[i].handle;
atomic_add(alloced, &map->live_grants);

Assume that use_ptemod is true (i.e., the domain mapping the granted
pages is a paravirtualized domain). In the code excerpt above, note that
the "alloced" variable is only incremented when both kmap_ops[i].status
and map_ops[i].status are set to GNTST_okay (i.e., both mapping
operations are successful). However, as also noted above, there are
cases where a grant mapping operation fails partially, breaking the
assumption of the code excerpt above.

The aforementioned causes map->live_grants to be incorrectly set. In
some cases, all of the map_ops mappings fail, but all of the kmap_ops
mappings succeed, meaning that live_grants may remain zero. This in turn
makes it impossible to unmap the successfully grant-mapped pages pointed
to by kmap_ops, because unmap_grant_pages has the following snippet of
code at its beginning:

if (atomic_read(&map->live_grants) == 0)
return; /* Nothing to do */

In other cases where only some of the map_ops mappings fail but all
kmap_ops mappings succeed, live_grants is made positive, but when the
user requests unmapping the grant-mapped pages, __unmap_grant_pages_done
will then make map->live_grants negative, because the latter function
does not check if all of the pages that were requested to be unmapped
were actually unmapped, and the same function unconditionally subtracts
"data->count" (i.e., a value that can be greater than map->live_grants)
from map->live_grants. The side effects of a negative live_grants value
have not been studied.

The net effect of all of this is that grant references are leaked in one
of the above conditions. In Qubes OS v4.1 (which uses Xen's grant
mechanism extensively for X11 GUI isolation), this issue manifests
itself with warning messages like the following to be printed out by the
Linux kernel in the VM that had granted pages (that contain X11 GUI
window data) to dom0: "g.e. 0x1234 still pending", especially after the
user rapidly resizes GUI VM windows (causing some grant-mapping
operations to partially or completely fail, due to the fact that the VM
unshares some of the pages as part of the window resizing, making the
pages impossible to grant-map from dom0).

The fix for this issue involves counting all successful map_ops and
kmap_ops mappings separately, and then adding the sum to live_grants.
During unmapping, only the number of successfully unmapped grants is
subtracted from live_grants. The code is also modified to check for
negative live_grants values after the subtraction and warn the user.

Fixes: dbe97cff7dd9 ("xen/gntdev: Avoid blocking in unmap_grant_pages()")

Looks like this patch has been pretty buggy, sorry. This is the second
time there has been a problem with it. Thanks for the fix.


No problem! :-) Debugging this issue and coming up with a fix was a
nice challenge for me.

Cc: stable@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Signed-off-by: M. Vefa Bicakci <m.v.b@xxxxxxxxxx>

Changes since v1:
- To determine which unmap operations were successful, the previous
version of this patch set the "unmap_ops[i].status" and
"kunmap_ops[i].status" fields to the value "1" prior to passing these
data structures to the hypervisor. Instead of doing that, the code now
checks whether the "handle" fields in the same data structures were
*not* set to "INVALID_GRANT_HANDLE". (Suggested by Juergen Gross.)
drivers/xen/gntdev.c | 22 +++++++++++++++++-----
1 file changed, 17 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/xen/gntdev.c b/drivers/xen/gntdev.c
index 84b143eef395..eb0586b9767d 100644
--- a/drivers/xen/gntdev.c
+++ b/drivers/xen/gntdev.c
@@ -367,8 +367,7 @@ int gntdev_map_grant_pages(struct gntdev_grant_map *map)
for (i = 0; i < map->count; i++) {
if (map->map_ops[i].status == GNTST_okay) {
map->unmap_ops[i].handle = map->map_ops[i].handle;
- if (!use_ptemod)
- alloced++;
+ alloced++;
} else if (!err)
err = -EINVAL;
@@ -377,8 +376,7 @@ int gntdev_map_grant_pages(struct gntdev_grant_map *map)
if (use_ptemod) {
if (map->kmap_ops[i].status == GNTST_okay) {
- if (map->map_ops[i].status == GNTST_okay)
- alloced++;
+ alloced++;
map->kunmap_ops[i].handle = map->kmap_ops[i].handle;
} else if (!err)
err = -EINVAL;
@@ -394,8 +392,14 @@ static void __unmap_grant_pages_done(int result,
unsigned int i;
struct gntdev_grant_map *map = data->data;
unsigned int offset = data->unmap_ops - map->unmap_ops;
+ int successful_unmaps = 0;
+ int live_grants;
for (i = 0; i < data->count; i++) {
+ if (map->unmap_ops[offset + i].status == GNTST_okay &&
+ map->unmap_ops[offset + i].handle != INVALID_GRANT_HANDLE)
+ successful_unmaps++;
WARN_ON(map->unmap_ops[offset + i].status != GNTST_okay &&
map->unmap_ops[offset + i].handle != INVALID_GRANT_HANDLE);
pr_debug("unmap handle=%d st=%d\n",
@@ -403,6 +407,10 @@ static void __unmap_grant_pages_done(int result,
map->unmap_ops[offset+i].handle = INVALID_GRANT_HANDLE;
if (use_ptemod) {
+ if (map->kunmap_ops[offset + i].status == GNTST_okay &&
+ map->kunmap_ops[offset + i].handle != INVALID_GRANT_HANDLE)
+ successful_unmaps++;
WARN_ON(map->kunmap_ops[offset + i].status != GNTST_okay &&
map->kunmap_ops[offset + i].handle != INVALID_GRANT_HANDLE);
pr_debug("kunmap handle=%u st=%d\n",
@@ -411,11 +419,15 @@ static void __unmap_grant_pages_done(int result,
map->kunmap_ops[offset+i].handle = INVALID_GRANT_HANDLE;
* Decrease the live-grant counter. This must happen after the loop to
* prevent premature reuse of the grants by gnttab_mmap().
- atomic_sub(data->count, &map->live_grants);
+ live_grants = atomic_sub_return(successful_unmaps, &map->live_grants);
+ if (WARN_ON(live_grants < 0))
+ pr_err("%s: live_grants became negative (%d) after unmapping %d pages!\n",
+ __func__, live_grants, successful_unmaps);
/* Release reference taken by __unmap_grant_pages */
gntdev_put_map(NULL, map);

Is there a possibility that live_grants could overflow, as it is now
set to a value twice as large as what it had been previously?

Good point! My answer in summary: I think that the code could be improved,
but with reasonable values for the "limit" module parameter, there should
not be issues.

Grant mappings are set up via ioctl calls, and the structure field that
holds the number of grant references has u32 type:

(Quoting from kernel v5.15.71 for convenience)
=== 8< ===
struct ioctl_gntdev_map_grant_ref {
/* IN parameters */
/* The number of grants to be mapped. */
__u32 count;
=== >8 ===

However, the number of grant references is further limited in the actual
ioctl handler function gntdev_ioctl_map_grant_ref(), which calls
gntdev_test_page_count() to ensure that the number of granted pages
requested to be mapped does not exceed "limit". "limit" defaults to 64K,
which should be okay to use with an atomic_t type (i.e., a 32-bit signed
integer type) like "live_grants", assuming that the system administrator
does not go overboard and set "limit" to a very large value:

=== 8< ===
static unsigned int limit = 64*1024;
module_param(limit, uint, 0644);
"Maximum number of grants that may be mapped by one mapping request");

/* trimmed */

bool gntdev_test_page_count(unsigned int count)
return !count || count > limit;

/* trimmed */

static long gntdev_ioctl_map_grant_ref(struct gntdev_priv *priv,
struct ioctl_gntdev_map_grant_ref __user *u)
/* trimmed */

pr_debug("priv %p, add %d\n", priv, op.count);
if (unlikely(gntdev_test_page_count(op.count)))
return -EINVAL;

/* trimmed */
=== >8 ===

To be fair, the "count" field of the gndev_grant_map structure is a signed
integer, so very large values of count could overflow live_grants, as
live_grants needs to accommodate values up to and including 2*count.

=== 8< ===
struct gntdev_grant_map {
atomic_t in_use;
struct mmu_interval_notifier notifier;
bool notifier_init;
struct list_head next;
int index;
int count;
/* trimmed */
=== >8 ===

If not, you can add:

Acked-by: Demi Marie Obenour <demi@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>

Thank you! I hope that the explanation and rationale above are satisfactory.
Please let me know what you think.