Re: [PATCH/RFC 0/4] Probe deferral for IOMMU DT integration
From: Laurent Pinchart
Date: Mon Feb 16 2015 - 11:13:57 EST
Hi Laura and all,
On Thursday 05 February 2015 16:31:58 Laura Abbott wrote:
> On the heels of Exynos integrating SMMU in to the DT for probing,
> this series attempts to add support to make SMMU drivers work with
> deferred probing. This has been referenced before but this is
> some actual code to use as a starting point for discussion.
> The requirement for this is based on a previous patch to add clock
> support to the ARM SMMU driver. Once we have clock support, it's
> possible that the driver itself may need to be defered which breaks
> a bunch of assumptions about how SMMU probing is supposed to work.
> The concept here is to have the driver call of_dma_configure which
> may return -EPROBE_DEFER. of_dma_configure could possibly be moved
> up to probe level. The existing method of initialization still needs
> to be done as well which might mean we have the worst of both worlds.
> Open questions:
> - This still doesn't really address Arnd's concerns about disabling
Arnd, Will and I have discussed IOMMU probe deferral last week. Here's a
summary of the discussion, before the details blur away.
The discussion covered both higher level concepts and lower level details, in
various directions. I'll try to make the summary clear by filling the gaps
between pieces where needed, so some of the information below might not be a
direct result of the discussions. Arnd and Will, please feel free to correct
The first question we've discussed was whether probe deferral for IOMMUs is
really needed. Various dependencies between IOMMU devices and other devices
exist, in particular on clocks (as you have mentioned above) and on power
domains (as mentioned by Marek in http://lists.infradead.org/pipermail/linux-arm-kernel/2015-February/323238.html). While there are mechanism to handle
some of them with probe deferral (for instance by using the OF_DECLARE macros
to register clock drivers), generalizing those mechanisms would essentially
recreate a probe ordering mechanism similar to link order probe ordering and
couldn't really scale.
Additionally, IOMMUs could also be present hot-pluggable devices and depend on
resources that are thus hot-plugged. OF_DECLARE wouldn't help in that case.
For all those reasons we have concluded that probe deferral for IOMMUs is
desired if it can be implemented cleanly.
The second question we've discussed was how to implement probe deferral
The current implementation configures DMA at device creation time and sets the
- dma_map_ops (IOMMU, SWIOTLB, linear mapping)
- initial DMA mask
- DMA offset
- DMA coherency
Additionally the IOMMU group (when an IOMMU is present) will also be
configured at the same time (patches are under review).
The base idea is to defer probing of bus master devices when their IOMMU isn't
present. Three cases need to be handled.
1. No IOMMU is declared by the firmware (through DT, ACPI, ...) for the bus
master device. The bus master device probe doesn't need to be deferred due to
the IOMMU. dma_map_ops must be set to SWIOTLB or linear mapping (the later
should likely be implemented through SWIOTLB).
2. An IOMMU is declared for the bus master device and the IOMMU has been
successfully probed and registered. The bus master device probe doesn't need
to be deferred due to the IOMMU. dma_map_ops must be set to IOMMU ops.
3. An IOMMU is declared for the bus master device but the IOMMU isn't
registered. This can be caused by different reasons:
- a. No driver is loaded for this IOMMU (for instance because DT describes the
IOMMU connection, but the IOMMU driver hasn't been developed yet, or an older
kernel is used). If the IOMMU is optional the bus master device probe should
succeed, and dma_map_ops should be set to linear. If the IOMMU is mandatory
the bus master device probe should fail.
Note that, as we require IOMMU drivers to be compiled in, we don't need to
handle the case of loadable IOMMU drivers that haven't been loaded yet.
- b. A driver is loaded for this IOMMU but the IOMMU hasn't been probed yet,
or its probe has been deferred. The bus master device probe should be
- c. A driver is loaded for this IOMMU but the IOMMU probe has failed
permanently. It's not clear at the moment whether we should try to recover
from this automatically using the same mechanism as case 3.a, or if we can
considered this as an abnormal failure and disable the bus master device.
Assuming that we should try to recover from such an error, we can't predict
this case when the device is instantiated (even if IOMMUs are registered
before bus master devices are added, for instance using the OF_DECLARE
mechanism that Will has implemented). We thus need to setup the dma_map_ops
and IOMMU group at bus master device probe time.
Furthermore, we can't distinguish cases 3.a and 3.b at bus master probe time
without early registration of IOMMU drivers. Case 3.a would instead be
considered as 3.b, leading to infinite probe deferral of bus master devices.
For those reasons we have concluded that IOMMU probe deferral needs to be
implemented with a combination of several mechanisms. The following steps
should happen at bus master device probe time.
1. The IOMMU device referenced by the firmware with the bus master device is
looked up. On DT-based systems, this will be the IOMMU DT node referenced by
the iommus property. If no IOMMU device is associated, dma_map_ops will be set
to linear mapping or SWIOTLB and device probe will continue.
2. An IOMMU device is referenced for the bus master device.
The corresponding IOMMU instance is looked up. This requires a new IOMMU
registration system. IOMMU drivers will create IOMMU instances at probe time
and register them with the IOMMU core.
If an IOMMU instance is found for the referenced IOMMU device, the IOMMU
instance's of_xlate function will be called to setup the IOMMU.
If the of_xlate call succeeds dma_map_ops will be set to IOMMU ops and device
probe will continue. If the call fails we can either fail the bus master
device probe, or fall back to non-IOMMU dma_map_ops (to be discussed).
3. The IOMMU device referenced for the bus master device isn't present, due to
the IOMMU device probe not having been performed yet, having been deferred, or
The IOMMU driver associated with the IOMMU device is looked up. This was
initially thought to require an early registration mechanism for IOMMU drivers
(using an OF_DECLARE mechanism for DT-based systems for instance), but on
second thought it might be possible to implement this based on normal driver
registration (to be researched).
If an IOMMU driver is found for the referenced IOMMU device, a callback
function of the IOMMU driver is called to check whether an IOMMU instance is
expected to be registered later (most IOMMU drivers will just return true, so
we could skip this callback function until an IOMMU driver requires it). If an
IOMMU instance is expected to be registered later the bus master device probe
is deferred. Otherwise dma_map_ops will be set to linear mapping/SWIOTLB and
device probe will continue.
The initial DMA mask and the DMA offset can still be configured at device
instantiation time if desired.
> - Currently tested where we knew the driver was going to be deferring.
> Probably need some logic for calling of_dma_configure again.
> This is based on Robin Murphy's work for dma mapping and a few
> patches from Murali Kaicheri for of_dma_configure.
> ml 
> html 
> tml 
> Laura Abbott (3):
> dma-mapping: Make arch_setup_dma_ops return an error code
> of: Return error codes from of_dma_configure
> iommu/arm-smmu: Support deferred probing
> Mitchel Humpherys (1):
> iommu/arm-smmu: add support for specifying clocks
> arch/arm/include/asm/dma-mapping.h | 2 +-
> arch/arm/mm/dma-mapping.c | 4 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/dma-mapping.h | 2 +-
> arch/arm64/mm/dma-mapping.c | 16 +--
> drivers/iommu/arm-smmu.c | 186 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> drivers/iommu/iommu.c | 49 ++++++++-
> drivers/iommu/of_iommu.c | 14 ++-
> drivers/of/device.c | 9 +-
> include/linux/dma-mapping.h | 7 +-
> include/linux/iommu.h | 2 +
> include/linux/of_device.h | 4 +-
> 11 files changed, 268 insertions(+), 27 deletions(-)
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