Re: [PATCH v6 6/7] KVM: arm64: allow get exception information from userspace

From: James Morse
Date: Fri Sep 22 2017 - 12:53:33 EST

Hi gengdongjiu,

On 21/09/17 08:55, gengdongjiu wrote:
> On 2017/9/14 21:00, James Morse wrote:
>> user-space can choose whether to use SEA or SEI, it doesn't have to choose the
>> same notification type that firmware used, which in turn doesn't have to be the
>> same as that used by the CPU to notify firmware.
>> The choice only matters because these notifications hang on an existing pieces
>> of the Arm-architecture, so the notification can only add to the architecturally
>> defined meaning. (i.e. You can only send an SEA for something that can already
>> be described as a synchronous external abort).
>> Once we get to user-space, for memory_failure() notifications, (which so far is
>> all we are talking about here), the only thing that could matter is whether the
>> guest hit a PG_hwpoison page as a stage2 fault. These can be described as
>> Synchronous-External-Abort.
>> The Synchronous-External-Abort/SError-Interrupt distinction matters for the CPU
>> because it can't always make an error synchronous. For memory_failure()
>> notifications to a KVM guest we really can do this, and we already have this
>> behaviour for free. An example:
>> A guest touches some hardware:poisoned memory, for whatever reason the CPU can't
>> put the world back together to make this a synchronous exception, so it reports
>> it to firmware as an SError-interrupt.
>> Linux gets an APEI notification and memory_failure() causes the affected page to
>> be unmapped from the guest's stage2, and SIGBUS_MCEERR_AO sent to user-space.
>> Qemu/kvmtool can now notify the guest with an IRQ or POLLed notification. AO->
>> action optional, probably asynchronous.
>> But in our example it wasn't really asynchronous, that was just a property of
>> the original CPU->firmware notification. What happens? The guest vcpu is re-run,
>> it re-runs the same instructions (this was a contained error so KVM's ELR points
>> at/before the instruction that steps in the problem). This time KVM takes a
>> stage2 fault, which the mm code will refuse to fixup because the relevant page
>> was marked as PG_hwpoision by memory_failure(). KVM signals Qemu/kvmtool with
>> SIGBUS_MCEERR_AR. Now Qemu/kvmtool can notify the guest using SEA.
> CC Achin
> I have some personal opinion, if you think it is not right, hope you can point out.
> Synchronous External Abort and SError Interrupt are hardware exception(hardware concept),
> which is independent of software notification,
> in armv8 without RAS, the two concepts already exist. In the APEI spec, in order to
> better describe the two exceptions, so use SEA and SEI notification to stand
for them.

> SEA notification stands for Synchronous External Abort, so may be it is not only a
> notification, it also stands for a hardware error type.
> SEI notification stands for SError Interrupt, so may be it is not only a notification,
> it also stands for a hardware error type.

> In the OS, it has different handling flow to the two exception(two notification):
> when the guest OS running, if the hardware generates a Synchronous External Abort, we
> told the guest OS this error is SError Interrupt instead of Synchronous
External Abort.

This should only happen when APEI doesn't claim the external-abort as a RAS
notification. If there were CPER records to process then the error is handled by
the host, and we can return to the guest.

If this wasn't a firmware-first notification, then you're right KVM hands the
guest an asynchronous external abort. This could be considered a bug in KVM. (we
can discuss with Marc and Christoffer what it should do), but:

I'm not sure what scenario you could see this in: surely all your
CPU:external-aborts are taken to EL3 by SCR_EL3.EA and become firmware-first
notifications. So they should always be claimed by APEI.

> guest OS uses SEI notification handling flow to deal with it, I am not sure whether it
> will have problem, because the true hardware exception is Synchronous External
> Abort, but software treats it as SError interrupt to handle.

Once you're into a guest the original 'true hardware exception' shouldn't
matter. In this scenario KVM has handed the guest an SError, our question is 'is
it an SEI notification?':

For firmware first the guest OS should poke around in the CPER buffers, find
nothing to do, and return to the arch code for (future) kernel-first.
For kernel first the guest OS should trawl through the v8.2 ERR registers, find
nothing to do, and continue to the default case:

By default, we should panic on SError, unless its classified as a non-fatal RAS
error. (I'm tempted to pr_warn_once() if we get RAS notifications but there is
no work to do).

What you may be seeing is some awkwardness with the change in the SError ESR
with v8.2. Previously the VSE mechanism injected an impdef SError, (but they
were all impdef so it didn't matter).
With VSESR_EL2 KVM has to specify one, and all-zeros is a bad choice as this
means 'classified as a RAS error ... unknown!'.

I have a patch in the upcoming SError/RAS series that changes KVMs virtual-abort
code to specify an impdef ESR for this path.

> In the mainline code, it does not have SEI notification support, the reason I
> think it is because of the error address record by firmware is not accurate
> (SError Interrupt is asynchronous exception).

Yes, while we don't expect a FAR with an SError, but we do expect a valid
representation of the RAS error in either the CPER records or the v8.2. ERR
registers (or both). If we have neither of those, its not a RAS error and we
should panic.

> so if treat a hardware Synchronous External Abort as SError interrupt(SEI).
> The default OS behavior for SEI is PANIC, that is to say, when hardware triggers
> a Synchronous External Abort(SEA), if guest treat it as SError interrupt(SEI),
> the OS will be panic. in fact, it can be recoverable instead of Panic.

If its a RAS error APEI (or in the future, the kernel-first handler), should
claim the error, so the guest never sees it. If you are hitting this behaviour
in KVM, then it wasn't a RAS error.

> I ever added a patch to support the SEI notification, but not sure whether
> it is can be accepted by open source, until now, not receive response.

The patch you posted during the merge window made no sense on its own, so must
replace $one_of the other patches in your v5 (or was it v6)... I'll get to it...

Because the SEI notification depends on v8.2 I'd like to get the SError/RAS
series posted (currently re-testing), then I'll pick up enough of the patches
you've posted for a consolidated version of the series, and we can take the
discussion from there.

I'd still like to know what your firmware does if the normal-world believes its
masked physical-SError and you want to hand it an SEI notification.