printk() without KERN_ prefixes? (in 2.5.59) and Q: small kernel image doc

From: Ph. Marek (
Date: Tue Jan 21 2003 - 03:58:43 EST

Hello everybody,

until now I believed that all printk()'s should have a KERN_ prefix - but to
my surprise it ain't so:
        grep printk -r . | grep -v "KERN_" | wc -l
        grep printk -r . | grep -v "KERN_" | cut -d: -f1 | uniq | wc -l
so there are ~ 30 000 printk() lines in 2600 files which don't have such a

Should they be fixed to KERN_INFO or some such? I'm willing to contribute a
patch (which will be done by script, of course). Or am I missing something
and they shall stay as they are?

I'm looking at this part as I'm trying to get a smaller kernel image, as my
boot media (1.44 MB disk :-( is getting full (yes I know that there's a lot I
can do about userspace too :-) and so I'm thinking about dropping all
KERN_DEBUG, maybe KERN_INFO and possible KERN_NOTICE to save some space. I
remember having read some ideas (and possibly a web reference) on lkml in
mid-2002 but couldn't find them yet.

Anyway, are there some other resources on the web for building small kernel's?
(that is, small kernel images, not for use in small machines). I already
searched a bit and found some sites (mulinux, superant/smalllinux,
linuxrouter, linux embedding, small unix, ...)

I know that I could use an older kernel (2.0 or 2.2) but because of driver
maturity (ie. workarounds for bugs in recent hardware) and performance I'd
like to use current kernels.



PS: Highlights are below (more than 100 occurances)

    102 ./drivers/scsi/qlogicfc.c
    103 ./drivers/block/floppy.c
    104 ./drivers/atm/idt77252.c
    104 ./drivers/cdrom/sjcd.c
    106 ./drivers/char/rio/rioinit.c
    107 ./net/atm/mpc.c
    109 ./drivers/message/i2o/i2o_core.c
    110 ./drivers/char/stallion.c
    114 ./drivers/sbus/char/aurora.c
    114 ./drivers/cdrom/aztcd.c
    116 ./drivers/char/pcmcia/synclink_cs.c
    117 ./drivers/char/serial167.c
    122 ./drivers/scsi/AM53C974.c
    130 ./drivers/message/fusion/mptbase.c
    136 ./drivers/char/synclinkmp.c
    142 ./drivers/char/synclink.c
    144 ./drivers/message/fusion/mptscsih.c
    145 ./drivers/scsi/ncr53c8xx.c
    147 ./arch/ia64/kernel/perfmon.c
    149 ./drivers/scsi/sym53c8xx.c
    154 ./drivers/net/hp100.c
    164 ./sound/oss/cs46xx.c
    166 ./drivers/atm/iphase.c
    180 ./drivers/scsi/aha152x.c
    184 ./drivers/char/cyclades.c
    184 ./drivers/char/rio/rioctrl.c
    204 ./drivers/scsi/53c7xx.c
    206 ./drivers/scsi/osst.c
    208 ./drivers/scsi/53c7,8xx.c
    217 ./drivers/scsi/qla1280.c
    221 ./drivers/scsi/cpqfcTSworker.c
    229 ./fs/jffs/intrep.c
    230 ./drivers/scsi/aic7xxx_old.c
    253 ./crypto/tcrypt.c

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